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People named in this report:
Hamid Karzai, the president of Afghanistan
Mohammad Qasim Fahim, the defense minister of Afghanistan, formerly a senior military commander in the Jamiat-e Islami wing of the Northern Alliance, and currently a powerful leader in Shura-e Nazar.
Younis Qanooni, the minister of education of Afghanistan, formerly a Jamiat-e Islami official in the Northern Alliance, and currently a powerful leader in Shura-e Nazar.
Dr. Abdullah Abdullah, the foreign minister of Afghanistan, a former official in Jamiat-e Islami in the Northern Alliance and an important political figure in Shura-e Nazar.
Burhanuddin Rabbani, the former president of Afghanistan and founder of the Jamiat-e Islami party; currently a de facto leader of some Jamiat-e Islami commanders. He is also the publisher of a newspaper in Kabul, Piyam Mujahid (Message of the Mujahid), and is politically involved in the consultation process for Afghanistan’s new constitutution.
Abdul Rabb al-Rasul Sayyaf, the founder of the Ittihad-e Islami party, which has been an ally of Jamiat-e Islami in the Northern Alliance from the late 1990’s to present. Currently, Sayyaf is a de facto leader of several military commanders in the southeast. He also lectures on Islamic law at Kabul University and is involved in the Afghan constitutional process.
Muhammad Karim Khalili, a vice-president of Afghanistan, the leader of the Hezb-e Wahdat party, and unofficial leader of former Hezb-e Wahdat commanders in Afghanistan.
Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq, the minister of planning of Afghanistan and another leader of Hezb-e Wahdat.
Ali Ahmad Jalali, the interior minister of Afghanistan, close ally of Karzai and considered a reformer, a former military instructor and author of several books on military history in Afghanistan.
Basir Salangi, the chief of the Kabul city police, a former northern alliance commander, and a member of Shura-e Nazar.
Mohammad Arif, the chief of the Afghan intelligence agency, the Amniat-e Melli, a member of Shura-e Nazar.
Zabit Musa, the district governor of Paghman district, Kabul province.
Mullah Taj Mohammad: the governor of Kabul province
Ettiqullah Ludin, a high-level commander in Logar province.
In Jalalabad, Nagarhar province:
Hazrat Ali, the head of Afghanistan’s eastern military command in the ministry of defense and the de facto ruler of Nangarhar province.
Commander Musa, a subcommander under Hazrat Ali in Jalalabad.
Sami, Musa’s son, another commander in Jalalabad.
Muzafaruddin, a local military commander in Wardak province.
Abdul Ahmad, the provincial police commander of Wardak province.
Commander Shir, the head of the local Amniat-e Melli office in Wardak province.
Raz Mohammad Dalili, the governor of Paktia province (including Gardez city).
Commander Ziauddin, a commander in Gardez city, Paktia province, formerly allied with the Taliban.
Commander Abdullah, a commander in Gardez city, Paktia province.
Political parties and military forces named in this report:
Harakat-e Islami, a predominantly Shi’a, anti-Soviet and anti-Taliban political party and military force that operated through the 1980s and 1990s in the northwest and west of Pakistan and in central, northern, and eastern Afghanistan. Now somewhat splintered, the party is dominated by a cleric, Mohammad Asef Mohseni, the military commander Sayeed Hossein Anwari, currently the agricultural minister in Afghanistan’s transitional government, and Sayeed Mohammad Ali Javeed, currently the minister of transportation.
Hezb-e Wahdat, a predominantly Shi’a and Hazara party and military force in Afghanistan. Hezb-e Wahdat was originally formed in 1988. The party’s current leader is Mohammad Karim Khalili, a vice-president of Afghanistan; another main leader is Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq, the current Minister of Planning.
Ittihad-e Islami, a predominantly Pashtun mujahidin party and military force formed by Abdul Rabb al-Rasul Sayyaf in the early 1980s, allied with Jamiat-e Islami through most of the 1990s to the present.
Jamiat-e Islami, a predominantly Tajik party formed by the former President of Afghanistan Burhanuddin Rabbani. The largest and most powerful political force in the Northern Alliance when the Taliban was in power. Many Jamiat-e Islami military members are also members of the military alliance Shura-e Nazar.
Nahzat-e Mille, a political party formed by several officials from the Northern Alliance forces after the fall of the Taliban, mostly made up of former officials from Jamiat-e Islami. Some key members of Shura-e Nazar are involved with Nahzat-e Mille.
Northern Alliance, the alliance of different anti-Taliban forces who fought the Taliban from the late 1990s through 2001.
Shura-e Nazar, the name of an alliance created between several mujahidin military commanders in the late 1980s, led by the mujahidin commander Ahmad Shah Massoud until he was assassinated on September 9, 2001. Now used to refer to a political and military alliance of former Northern Alliance commanders and officials (mostly from Jamiat-e Islami) led by Defense Minister Fahim, Education Minister Qanooni, and Foreign Minister Abdullah. Many Afghans refer to members of Jamiat-e Islami and Nahzat-e Mille, as well as other groups allied with them, as Shura-e Nazar.