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This report was written by John Sifton, researcher in the Asia Division, and Zama Coursen-Neff, counsel to the Children’s Rights Division. It is based on their research conducted from January through June 2003 in Afghanistan and from New York. Brad Adams, Executive Director of the Asia Division, and Joe Saunders, Deputy Program Director, edited the report. James Ross, Senior Legal Advisor, provided legal review. Widney Brown, LaShawn R. Jefferson, Alison Parker, Lois Whitman, and Saman Zia-Zarifi also reviewed the report and provided comments. Ami Evangelista, Liz Weiss, Ramin Pejan, and Josiah Kaplan provided research assistance. John Emerson designed the map. Production assistance was provided by Jonathan Horowitz, Veronica Matushaj, Andrea Holley, and Fitzroy Hepkins.

Human Rights Watch would like to thank the Afghan women and men whom we interviewed for this report and who assisted us in our investigation.

We would also like to thank the staff and officials of the non-governmental organizations and U.N. agencies in Afghanistan who have assisted us with our work. Human Rights Watch also thanks Barnett R. Rubin, Patricia Gossman, and Ahmed Rashid for their ongoing assistance.

Our work on Afghanistan has required significant financial resources. We thank the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Stichting Doen, and Rockefeller Brothers Fund for their generous contributions to our emergency work in Afghanistan.

Human Rights Watch

Asia Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold

political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Rory Mungoven, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Steve Crawshaw, London office director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Iain Levine, program director; Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Asia division was established in 1985 to monitor and promote the observance of internationally recognized human rights in Asia. Brad Adams is Executive Director; Smita Narula, Sara Colm and Mickey Spiegel are Senior Researchers; Meg Davis, Ali Hasan, and Charmain Mohamed are researchers; Ami Evangelista and Liz Weiss are associates. Joanne Leedom-Ackerman is Chairperson of the advisory committee.

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July 2003