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Clarisa Bencomo, researcher for the Children's Rights Division of Human Rights Watch, wrote this report, with contributions from Michael Bochenek, counsel to the Children's Rights Division. The report is based on four weeks of research conducted by Bencomo and Bochenek in October and November 2001, in addition to one week of preliminary research conducted by Julie Chadbourne, an Osher Fellow with the Europe and Central Asia Division of Human Rights Watch, in July 2001. Maura Dundon, associate of the Human Rights Watch refugee program, Ani Mason, associate of the Europe and Central Asia Division, and Ken Siefert, intern with the Children's Rights Division, provided additional research assistance.

Lois Whitman, executive director of the Children's Rights Division, Julia Hall, counsel to the Europe and Central Asia Division, Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director, and Michael McClintock, deputy program director, edited the report. Julie Chadbourne reviewed the manuscript, while Eric Goldstein, research director of the Middle East and North Africa Division, reviewed the sections dealing with abuses in Morocco. Rachael Reilly, director of the Human Rights Watch refugee program, reviewed the sections dealing with expulsions and residency, and Veronika Leila Szente Goldston, advocacy director for the Europe and Central Asia Division, reviewed the recommendations. Fitzroy Hepkins, Patrick Minges, and Dana Sommers provided production assistance.

This report would not have been possible without the help of the many children who agreed to share their experiences with us. The names of all the children we interviewed have been changed to protect their privacy.

Many individuals in Spain and Morocco assisted us in researching this report, sharing their expertise and advice. In Spain, Sisters Ana María Moreno Pérez and Paula Domingo Domingo of the Hermanas Carmelitas de la Caridad de Vedruna in Ceuta, and José Palazón and María Teresa Echarte Mellado, of Prodein in Melilla, gave us access to their files and provided invaluable logistical assistance, and Jordi Passola, Joan Ignasi Soler, and Pablo Traspas of Médecins sans Frontières generously provided advice and background information on health and sanitary conditions for unaccompanied migrant children in Ceuta and Melilla. Concepción Ballesteros, Plataforma de Organizaciones de Infancia; Itziar Ruiz Gimenez, refugee team, Amnesty International Spain Section; Mar Toharia, Save the Children/Spain; and María Jesús Vega, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Spain, provided valuable advice in planning our research, and Magdelena Díaz provided logistical and translation assistance in Madrid. We also received advice and input from Escode, a nongovernmental organization in Ceuta; Sandra Gil Araujo, Instituto de Estudios sobre Conflictos y Acción Humanitaria; and Liliana Suárez Navaz, Department of Anthropology, Autonomous University of Madrid. Finally, we would like to thank Mariano Aguirre, director of Centro de Investigación para la Paz (CIP), for his ongoing support of Human Rights Watch's work in Spain.

In Morocco, `Abd al Hamid Azibou, director, Child Protection Center of Tangier, and Rajae Barrada, child protection officer, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), were valuable sources of information on the enforcement of Moroccan law. Dr. Najat M'jid, director, Bayti, and Olivier DeGreef, representative, UNICEF, provided background information on patterns of clandestine child migration from Morocco to Europe; and Khaled al Mahmoud, street children educator, Bayti; Omar Sa`adoun, head of street children programs, Bayti; and Dr. `Abd al Latif Shahboun shared their experience working on street children issues in Morocco.

We also thank the many who assisted us in Spain and Morocco who asked not to be named. Human Rights Watch wishes to thank the Humans All Foundation and the Third Millennium Foundation for their generous support of our work on the human rights of migrants in Western Europe.

Human Rights Watch
Children's Rights Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold
political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international
human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed Brody, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; John T. Green, operations director, Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Michael McClintock, deputy program director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Malcolm Smart, program director; Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Children's Rights Division was established in 1994 to monitor and promote the human rights of children around the world. The staff includes Lois Whitman, director; Michael Bochenek and Zama Coursen-Neff, counsel; Jo Becker, advocacy director; Clarisa Bencomo, researcher; and Dana Sommers, associate. Jane Green Schaller is chair of the advisory committee.

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