Both Kenya and Uganda have adopted policies that require most refugees to live in refugee camps, or settlements, as they are called in Uganda. These policies have been decided and are implemented by each of these governments in collaboration with UNHCR. Refugees living in urban areas are violating this requirement. As a result, refugees are vulnerable to the kinds of human rights abuse documented in the two previous sections of this report, such as police harassment, arrest, detention, and in Kenya even refoulement after being charged with illegal entry.
130 See, e.g. UNHCR, "Policy and Practice Regarding Urban Refugees: A Discussion Paper," October 1995 (noting that "urban refugees and asylum seekers tend to be influenced by some of the same push and pull factors" as "unequal development and a growing North-South divide" and a "growth in economically-driven migrations.").