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This report was written and researched by Peter Bouckaert, Human Rights Watch senior researcher for emergencies; Miranda Sissons, researcher for the Middle East and North Africa division of Human Rights Watch; and Johanna Bjorken, consultant for Human Rights Watch. The report was edited by Hanny Megally, executive director of the Middle East and North Africa division of Human Rights Watch; Joe Stork, Washington director of the Middle East and North Africa division; Malcolm Smart, program director of Human Rights Watch; and Executive Director of Human Rights Watch Kenneth Roth. Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director of Human Rights Watch, provided legal review. James Darrow, associate for the Middle East and North Africa division, provided mission support and production assistance. Patrick Minges, Human Rights Watch publications director, and Veronica Matushaj, Human Rights Watch photo editor, provided production assistance.

The researchers wish to thank the many individuals and organizations that gave us invaluable assistance and advice. These include Adalah, al-Haq, Amnesty International, LAW, Lina Jarrar, Nafis `Ajjawi, Raslan Mahajna, and Dahlia. Many other individuals cannot be named: we are grateful nonetheless.

Human Rights Watch
Middle East and North Africa division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed Brody, advocacy director, Carroll Bogert, communications director; John T. Green, operations director; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Michael McClintock, deputy program director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Jemera Rone, counsel; Malcolm Smart, program director; Wilder Tayler, general counsel; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Middle East and North Africa division was established in 1989 to monitor and promote the observance of internationally recognized human rights in the Middle East and North Africa. Hanny Megally is the executive director; Joe Stork is the Washington office director; Hania Mufti is the London office director; Eric Goldstein is the research director; Virginia N. Sherry is associate director; Elahé Sharifpour-Hicks and Miranda Sissons are researchers. James Darrow and Dalia Haj-Omar are associates. Lisa Anderson and Gary Sick are co-chairs of the advisory committee and Bruce Rabb is the vice chair.

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