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Amniat: "Security," used to refer to the Afghan intelligence service, Amniat-e Mille ("National Security"). There is an independent Amniat service in Herat province.

Burqa and Chadori: Terms used interchangeably in many parts of Afghanistan to describe a head-to-toe garment worn by women that completely covers the body and face, allowing vision through a mesh screen. In Herat, many use only the term "burqa" to describe this garment, and the term "chadori" to describe a floor-length cloth that is wrapped around the head and body and held under the chin, with the face exposed.

Hijab: Generally, dress for women that conforms to Islamic standards, varying among countries and cultures; usually includes covering the hair and obscuring the shape of the body.

Lakh: Afghans count larger sums in terms of lakhs, with one lakh equaling 100,000 old afghanis, or Afs. Old afghanis traded at various levels through 2002: U.S.$1 bought 27,000 to 51,000 Afs. (Newly valued afghanis were released in October 2002: one new afghani is worth 1,000 old afghanis.)

Loya Jirga: In this report, "loya jirga" refers to the emergency meeting of delegates convened in Kabul in mid-June 2002 to appoint the Afghan Transitional Administration. Loya jirga is a Pashto phrase meaning "grand council," and is a traditional Afghan mechanism in which leaders meet to choose new kings, adopt constitutions, and decide important political matters and disputes.

Mahram: A close male relative (husband, brother, father, or son) who is allowed to see a woman without full hijab.

Mujahidin: Literally, "those who struggle." In Afghanistan, this refers specifically to the forces that fought the successive Soviet-backed regimes, although the former mujahidin parties, including Ismail Khan's, continue to use it with reference to themselves.

Shura: "Council." The shuras mentioned in this report include both governmental and nongovernmental bodies.

ISAF: International Security Assistance Force, the international peacekeeping force currently stationed in Kabul.