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This report is based on six weeks of research conducted in Uzbekistan in May and June 2000 by Cassandra Cavanaugh, Senior Researcher of the Europe and Central Asia Division, and Martina Vandenberg, Researcher for the Women's Rights Division. It was written by Cassandra Cavanaugh with valuable contributions by Martina Vandenberg, and edited by Holly Cartner, Executive Director of the Europe and Central Asia Division and Regan Ralph, Executive Director of the Women's Rights Division. Human Rights Watch Program Director Malcom Smart and Senior Legal Advisor James Ross also edited this report. Invaluable editorial assistance was provided by Elizabeth Eagen and Maria Pulzetti, associates in the Europe and Central Asia Division, and Lucia Fernandez, intern for the Women's Rights Division.

Our research in Uzbekistan could not have been carried out without the insight and guidance of many people, all of whom, for one reason or another, wished to remain anonymous. Human Rights Watch is exceedingly grateful for the contributions of some of Uzbekistan's leading sociologists and ethnographers, and for the candor and commitment of both the women's committee leaders and non-governmental activists. Finally, we pay tribute to the women who agreed to share their stories with us, and their courage and strength in the face of injustice.

Human Rights Watch
Europe and Central Asia Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed Brody, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Jeri Laber special advisor; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Michael McClintock, deputy program director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Jemera Rone, counsel; Malcolm Smart, program director; Wilder Tayler, general counsel; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Europe and Central Asia division was established in 1978 to monitor and promote domestic and international compliance with the human rights provisions of the 1975 Helsinki Accords. It is affiliated with the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, which is based in Vienna, Austria. Holly Cartner is the executive director; Rachel Denber is the deputy director; Elizabeth Andersen is the advocacy director; Cassandra Cavanaugh and Julia Hall are senior researchers; Bogdan Ivanisevic, Acacia Shields, and Jonathan Sugden are research associates; Diederik Lohman is the Moscow office director; Alexander Petrov is the assistant Moscow office director; Liudmila Belova, Rachel Bien, Elizabeth Eagen, Giorgi Gogia, and Maria Pulzetti are associates. Peter Osnos is the chair of the advisory committee and Alice Henkin is vice chair.

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