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      This report was researched and written by Nicholas Howen, consultant for Human Rights Watch. Juliette Abu-Iyun, consultant, and Miranda Sissons, researcher for the Middle East and North Africa division, conducted additional research. The report was edited by Hanny Megally, executive director, and Joe Stork, Washington director of the Middle East and North Africa division, and Human Rights Watch Program Director Malcolm Smart. Wilder Taylor, legal and policy director of Human Rights Watch, provided legal review. Production assistance was provided by James Darrow, associate for the Middle East and North Africa division; Jonathan Horowitz and Maura Dundon, associates for the Program division; Patrick Minges, publications director, and Amin Khair, executive network administrator. Laila Tomkinson provided research assistance.

Human Rights Watch
Middle East and North Africa Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold
political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international
human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed
Brody, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; John Green, operations director;
Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Michael McClintock, deputy
program director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources
director; Jemera Rone, counsel; Malcolm Smart, program director; Wilder Tayler, general counsel; and
Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L.
Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Middle East and North Africa division was established in 1989 to monitor and promote the observance
of internationally recognized human rights in the Middle East and North Africa. Hanny Megally is the
executive director; Eric Goldstein is the associate director, Joe Stork is the advocacy director; Virginia N.
Sherry is associate director; Hania Mufti is the London office director; and Miranda Sissons and Elahe Sharifpour-Hicks are researchers; James Darrow and Dalia Haj-Omar are associates. Anna Wuerth is the Finberg Fellow. Lisa Anderson and Gary Sick are co-chairs of the advisory committee and Bruce Rabb is the vice chair.

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