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This report was researched by Joanne Csete and Michael Bochenek of the Children's Rights Division of Human Rights Watch and written by Joanne Csete. Lois Whitman, executive director of the Children's Rights Division; Malcolm Smart, program director of Human Rights Watch; and Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director, edited the report.

A great many persons and organizations helped to make this research possible. Our thanks for generous help in the field goes to many nongovernmental organization and U.N. colleagues, including Martin J. Swinchatt, Beatrice Kavesu, and the gifted social workers Sarah W. Mbira and Anne W. Macharia of Pendekezo Letu in Thika and Nairobi; Joab and Philomena Othatcher of TEMAK in Kisumu; Alphonce C. L. Omolo, Pamela Odhiambo, Bernard Ogendi, Felgona Atieno, and the dedicated team at Pandipieri Catholic Centre, Kisumu; Wilfred O. Owuor of Catholic Relief Services in Homa Bay and Yvonne Ferguson of Catholic Relief Services in Nairobi; Mary Anienda, George Owiti, and Ricky Gai Omondi of MORCAO in Rachuonyo; K. Joyce Umbima, Timothy Ekesa, and their colleagues at the Kenya Alliance for Advancement of Children; Elizabeth Owuor-Oyugi and Evelynn Ogwang of the African Network for Prevention and Protection from Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN)-Kenya; Allan G. Ragi of the Kenya AIDS NGOs Consortium; Eric Ogwang of the Children's Legal Action Network (CLAN); Millie Odhiambo, Violet Anyanzwa and Jane Ndaisi Kwinga of CRADLE; Daniel Odibo and Julius Masuba of KESPA in Siaya; Captains Isaac Libiala and Rose Libiala of the Salvation Army in Kibera (Nairobi); Mary Njuguna and Jacqueline Anam of SNV; Patricia Hari and Nigel Nicholson of Save the Children-UK; Major Joyce K. Mbungu of the Salvation Army in Nairobi; Judy Thongori of the Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya; Willy Mutunga and Mikewa Ogada of the Kenya Human Rights Commission; Nicholas Alipui, Helena Eversole, Marinus Gotink, and Jane Muita of UNICEF-Kenya; Dr. Chris Ouma and John Mburu of ActionAID-Kenya; Dr. Angelo D'Agostino, S.J. of Nyumbani Home for Children; Dr. Michael Elmore-Meegan of the International Community for the Relief of Starvation and Suffering (ICROSS) in Kenya; Maryalice Onyura of Rescue Dada Centre; and Jedida Nyongesa of the Child Welfare Society of Kenya. We also thank the researchers and HIV/AIDS experts who provided advice and assistance: Dr. Kevin De Cock of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Nairobi), Dr. Aine Costigan of the Medical School at Kenyatta Hospital, Dr. Tony Johnston of Population Communication Africa, and Prof. Robert Bailey of the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Several persons in the legal community generously helped us understand the struggle of dealing with HIV/AIDS under Kenyan law, including Ambrose D. O. Rachier and Otiende Amollo of Rachier & Company Advocates and David Otieno of David Otieno & Co. Advocates in Kisumu.

For especially kind logistical assistance in the field, we thank Helena Eversole and Tanny Noorlander. Without the excellent and reliable work of James Muliti in Kenya, the research would not have been possible.

Most of all, we thank all of the courageous children, parents, and guardians who spoke to us about the way in which HIV/AIDS has affected their lives, helping to break the conspiracy of silence that exacerbates this terrible disease.

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