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This report is based on statements received fromand interviews with victims of human rights violations or their relatives, as well as newspapers sources and official documents. Human Rights Watch would like to thank all those who provided information and advice, including Bulent Peker of the Turkish Human Rights Foundation and Omer Eksi of Mazlum-Der (the Association of Human Rights and Solidarity for Oppressed Peoples).

This report was written by Jonathan Sugden, and edited by Elizabeth Anderson, advocacy director of the Europe and Central Asia division of Human Rights Watch and Mike McClintock, deputy Program Director of Human Rights Watch. Valuable comments and suggestions were also given by Dinah PoKempner, deputy general counsel to Human Rights Watch and Rachel Reilly, Refugee Policy Director of Human Rights Watch. Invaluable production assistance was provided by Elizabeth Eagen, Patrick Minges, and Fitzroy Hepkins.

Human Rights Watch
Europe and Central Asia Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed Brody, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; ; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Jeri Laber, special advisor; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Jemera Rone, counsel; Malcolm Smart, program director; Wilder Tayler, general counsel; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Europe and Central Asia division was established in 1978 to monitor and promote domestic and international compliance with the human rights provisions of the 1975 Helsinki Accords. It is affiliated with the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, which is based in Vienna, Austria. Holly Cartner is the executive director; Rachel Denber is the deputy director; Elizabeth Andersen is the advocacy director; Fred Abrahams is senior researcher; Cassandra Cavanaugh, Theresa Freese, Julia Hall, Malcolm Hawkes, Bogdan Ivanisevic, Acacia Shields, Jonathan Sugden and Benjamin Ward are research associates; Diederik Lohman is the Moscow office director; Alexander Petrov is the assistant Moscow office director; Pamela Gomez is the Caucasus office director; Liudmila Belova, Rachel Bien, Elizabeth Eagen, Maria Pulzetti, and Tamar Satnet are associates. Peter Osnos is the chair of the advisory committee and Alice Henkin is vice chair.

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