To the Government of the Russian Federation:
Comply With International Humanitarian Law
* Direct all Russian Federation troops to cease violations of international humanitarian law, including summary executions, rape, pillage, and the deliberate destruction of civilian property; instruct Russian Federation troops that any such violations will be investigated and those found responsible will be brought to justice;
* Direct all Russian Federation troops to stop the indiscriminate or disproportionate use of force against the civilian population; take all necessary steps to protect civilian populations from the effects of military and police operations; and
* Undertake an immediate investigation of abuses committed by Russian Federation troops in Chechnya, including in Alkhan-Yurt, and prosecute those found responsible.
Provide Access for the OSCE, Human Rights and Humanitarian Organizations, and Media
* Agree to the immediate deployment in Ingushetia and Chechnya of an independent international mission, mandated to observe, investigate, and report upon the human rights and humanitarian conditions relating to the military operation in Chechnya; refer cases for investigation and prosecution to the appropriate Russian authorities, and provide assistance to Russian authorities in the carrying out such investigations; such a mission could be undertaken under the auspices of the existing OSCE Assistance Group, or another competent international agency;
* Agree to the deployment of and cooperation with any U.N.-sponsored mechanism that is established to investigate allegations of serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the context of the conflict in Chechnya;
* Agree to requested visits by the U.N. Special Rapporteur on violence against women; the U.N. Chairman-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention; the U.N. Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions; and the U.N. Special Rapporteur on torture;
* Accept offers of international humanitarian assistance for displaced persons in Chechnya and neighboring provinces;
* Guarantee safe passage for and unencumbered access to humanitarian aid delivery and distribution in Chechnya and neighboring provinces; and
* Allow full and unimpeded access for local and foreign journalists and national and international organizations covering the conflict in Chechnya.
To the United Nations:
Adopt a Resolution at the Commission on Human Rights
* The 2000 U.N. Commission on Human Rights (in session March-April 2000) should yield a resolution condemning the abuses being committed in Chechnya. The resolution should call on the Russian government to investigate these abuses thoroughly and bring those responsible to justice, and it should also establish a mechanism for a parallel, independent, thorough and sustained U.N. inquiry into alleged gross violations of human rights and humanitarian law committed in Chechnya.
Pursue Procedures of U.N. Special Human Rights Mechanisms
* The Special Rapporteur on violence again women, the Chairman-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, and the Special Rapporteur on torture should vigorously pursue their requested visit to the North Caucasus. This initiative should be joined by the Special Representative of the Secretary General on Children and Armed Conflict.
To the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe:
Deploy an Expanded OSCE Assistance Group in the Region
On April 11, 1995, the OSCE established the Assistance Group to Chechnya. Its mandate, explicitly reaffirmed by all OSCE member states, including Russia, at the November 1999 Istanbul Summit, provides that it will, among other things, "promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms," and "facilitate the delivery to the region by international and nongovernmental organizations of humanitarian aid for victims of the crisis, wherever they may be located." The Assistance Group enjoys "all possible freedom of movement on the territory of the Chechen Republic and also on the territory of neighboring subjects of the Russian Federation, if so required for the performance of its tasks." Since the outbreak of hostilities in Chechnya in September 1999, the Assistance Group has not redeployed a permanent presence in the north Caucasus and its six-member team is currently based in Moscow.
* As is foreseen under the existing Assistance Group mandate, the OSCE should immediately deploy an expanded Assistance Group delegation to Ingushetia: to gather evidence of violations of human rights and humanitarian law being committed in Chechnya; to report publicly on any such abuses and make recommendations to the Russian government to curb abuses and hold those responsible accountable; and to monitor the treatment of displaced persons and advise the Russian authorities and international agencies with respect to needed humanitarian assistance;
* In accordance with the 1994 Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, Articles 30 and 31, the OSCE must insist on Russia's obligations to investigate abuses committed by Russian Federation troops in Chechnya, including in Alkhan-Yurt, and prosecute those found responsible. The OSCE should insist that Russia keeps the Chair-in-Office and the OSCE Permanent Council informed on progress in this regard; and
* The OSCE Assistance Group should cooperate with any investigation undertaken by the Russian government, but any monitoring or other activities of the Assistance Group should remain independent and distinct from the activities of Russian government institutions.
To the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Bilateral Donors, including the Government of Japan:
Impose Conditionality on International Loans
* Immediately suspend payment of all pending loan installments payable to the Russian Federation for unrestricted general budgetary spending, including pending World Bank payments under its structural adjustment loans. Signal that such payments will not resume until the Russian Federation takes meaningful steps to limit the civilian toll imposed by its military operation in Chechnya. Such steps should include serious, transparent, and impartial investigations of abuses committed and accountability for those responsible, and acceptance of an international monitoring presence in Chechnya and Ingushetia and full cooperation with its activities; and
* Refuse to negotiate any new loans or to renegotiate any existing loans until the above steps are taken.
To the Council of Europe:
Contribute to an International Presence
* Provide whatever technical assistance would be appropriate to international monitoring or investigative missions deployed to Ingushetia and Chechnya; and
* Insist on the independence of its staff seconded to the office of the Presidential Representative on Human Rights in Chechnya, including their freedom of movement and their right of unfettered communication with the Council of Europe secretariat and with the public.
Commence Legal Actions before the European Court of Human Rights
* Member states of the Council of Europe should file interstate complaints against the Russian Federation at the European Court of Human Rights.
Instigate a Committee of Ministers Investigation
* As envisioned by its 1994 Declaration, the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers should set in motion a special investigation into Russia's compliance with its Council of Europe commitments.
To the European Union and the United States:
Insist on Accountability for Violations and Access for International Monitors
In a recent statement about alleged abuses in Chechnya before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Portuguese Foreign Minister Jaime Gama, speaking on behalf of the European Union, stated that a "serious and independent investigation must be carried out without delay in order that those responsible can be brought to account." Addressing the same forum, U.S. Secretary of State Albright called for "a prompt and transparent investigation of all credible charges." To date, the Russian government has failed to undertake a serious investigation of abuses in Chechnya. It is therefore necessary for the U.S. and the E.U. to press forward for a two-track process of accountability involving both national and international inquiries. Specifically, the E.U. and the U.S. should:
* Continue to press the Russian Federation to undertake a thorough, transparent investigation of abuses committed in Chechnya and to hold those responsible accountable, warning that accountability is a non-negotiable minimum condition for enhanced political, economic, and security relationships with the Russian Federation;
* In light of the Russian government's failure to date to take meaningful steps to investigate and hold accountable those responsible for serious violations committed in the context of the conflict in Chechnya, sponsor and actively promote a resolution at the Commission on Human Rights condemning the abuses in Chechnya, particularly the summary executions, and calling for a sustained and thorough investigation conducted by a team of U.N. investigators;
* Press the Russian Federation to cooperate with the deployment of international monitoring and investigative missions in Ingushetia and Chechnya; and
* As envisioned in the December 6 decision of the E.U. General Affairs Council, E.U. member states should immediately dispatch their Moscow representatives to Ingushetia to monitor the human rights and humanitarian situation in the region. The U.S. government should take similar steps to monitor developments in the region.
Condition International Financial Assistance on an International Monitoring Presence and Accountability
* Oppose payment of any pending loan installments payable to the Russian Federation for unrestricted general budgetary spending, including pending World Bank payments under its structural adjustment loans. Assert the position that such payments should not resume until the Russian Federation takes meaningful steps to limit the civilian toll imposed by its military operation in Chechnya. Such steps should include serious, transparent, and impartial investigations of abuses committed and accountability for those responsible, acceptance of an international monitoring presence in Ingushetia and full cooperation with its activities, and meaningful steps to curb looting and the destruction of civilian property in Chechnya.
* Oppose any new loans or renegotiation of any existing loans until these same steps are taken.