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This report is based on research conducted in Kenya in May 1999 by Rosa Ehrenreich, Amy Marx, Marco Simons, Mark Templeton, and Yodon Thonden. (Rosa Ehrenreich was the Acting Director of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School and the faculty instructor of the Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic. Amy Marx is a member of the Yale Law School Class of 2000, Marco Simons of the Class of 2001, and Mark Templeton of the Class of 1999. Yodon Thonden is counsel to Human Rights Watch Children's Rights Division) The report was written by Rosa Ehrenreich, Amy Marx, Marco Simons, and Mark Templeton, and edited by Yodon Thonden. Binaifer Nowrojee of Human Rights Watch Africa Division provided additional helpful comments on the manuscript. Shalu Rozario, associate for Human Rights Watch Children's Rights Division, provided production assistance.

We wish to thank the Government of Kenya for providing us with helpful background information and access to facilities where children are schooled. In particular, we are grateful to Minister of Education Stephen Kalonzo Musyoka, M.P.; Permanent Secretary for Education Wilfred Kimalat; and Senior Deputy Director Elaine Makuru, all of whom were extremely generous with their time and assistance. We are also grateful to the many head teachers, deputy head teachers, and teachers who allowed us to interview them and their pupils, and who patiently answered our questions.

Many people provided us with helpful background information. In particular, in Kenya we wish to thank Elizabeth Owuor Oyugi and Lee Muthoga of the African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN) (Kenya); Dr. Philista Onyango of ANPPCAN (Regional); Joyce Umbima of the Kenya Alliance for the Advancement of the Rights of the Child; Jemimah W. Mwakisha of the Daily Nation; Victoria W.M. Kattambo of the Kenya Law Reform Commission; Njuguna Mutahi and Mutuma Ruteere of the Kenyan Human Rights Commission; Eric Oluoch Ogwang of Kituo Cha Sheria; Villoo Nowrojee; Alphonse Lumumba of Pandipieri Street Children Programme; and Henk van Beers of SNV Street Children Programme. Henry Gari and Beatrice Kamau provided valuable translation assistance. Outside of Kenya, we are also grateful to Rakesh Rajani, Dale Chandler of Kuleana Centre for Children's Rights in Tanzania, and to Miranda Horiban and Peter Newell of End Punishment of Children (EPOCH) Worldwide for sharing their insights with us.

Finally, we wish to thank the many Kenyan children who told us their stories. To protect their identites, the names of most children cited in this report have been changed.

Human Rights Watch
Children's Rights Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed Brody, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; Cynthia Brown, program director; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Jeri Laber, special advisor; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Susan Osnos, associate director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Jemera Rone, counsel; Wilder Tayler, general counsel; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Children's Rights Division was established in 1994 to monitor and promote the human rights of children around the world. Lois Whitman is the director; Yodon Thonden and Mike Bochenek are counsel; Jo Becker is advocacy director. Vikram Parekh is research associate; and Shalu Rozario is associate. Jane Green Schaller is chair of the advisory committee.

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