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While there have been some improvements since the publication of our last report in 1992, many of the major problems remain. As we did in 1990 and 1992, Human Rights Watch recommends that the Greek government abide by its obligations under international and national law, especially the Treaty of Lausanne, to protect the Turkish minority's fundamental rights.

To the government of Greece:
· Acknowledge the existence of the Turkish minority, as has been done in the past, most recently in the 1950s, and grant ethnic Turks all the civil and political rights enjoyed by other Greek citizens; this should include the right to call themselves and their associations and schools, if they so choose, "Turkish.” End prosecutions and punitive actions against those who called themselves “Turkish”;

· Accord the Turkish minority the freedom to leave Greece and return without hindrance or fear and immediately grant citizenship to those individuals deprived of their citizenship under Article 19 who reside in Greece as stateless individuals. Pending granting of citizenship, issue identification cards and travel documents to all such individuals;

· Return powers concerning the Turkish minority to the elected provincial governors (Nomarcs) that were removed from their authority in 1996 and transferred to the state-appointed secretary-general. Such powers included the right to approve land sales and to repair mosques;

· Guarantee the Turkish minority equal rights to business and professional life and equal access to civil service employment;

· Accord the Turkish minority freedom of expression, including full access to radio, television, and publications from Turkey; end the harassment of the Turkish minority press;

· Enforce international agreements forbidding degrading treatment of the Turkish minority, including harassment by Greek authorities;

· Guarantee freedom of religion to the Turkish minority, including the freedom to select muftis and the control of private charitable foundations (vak1flar). Repeal Law No. 1920 of 1990 concerning the selection of muftis as well as Law No. 1091 of 1980 and Presidential Decree No. 1 of 1991 concerning management of the vak1flar. Cease prosecution of the so-called “elected muftis.” Allow the minority to repair and build mosques without state impediment.

· Accord the Turkish minority the right to control its schools, including the right to build, enlarge, and repair schools, to appoint teachers for the Turkish language curriculum, to set the class size for secondary schools, and to obtain and use current schoolbooks in the Turkish language. Institute a curriculum of teaching Greek as a second language in primary schools. Where needed and desired, institute the teaching of Turkish as a second language to Pomak and Roma children; and

· Ratify the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

To the member states of the European Union:
· Raise the issue of the Turkish minority of Thrace, especially the Greek government’s denial of their ethnic identity, in bilateral meetings with Greece and in the E.U. as a whole;

· Ensure that the annual E.U. transfer to Greece of 387 ecu per person (4.1 billion ecu or U.S.$4.8 billion) is, in proportion to their numbers, invested in and used for the needs of the Turkish minority;

· Monitor the situation of the minority and publicly report on findings of discrimination or other human rights abuses; and

· Address the problems of discrimination against the Turkish minority in Greece identified in this report, in connection with the Council of Minister’s monitoring procedure, the on-going monitoring and consultative activities of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, and current consideration of this subject by the Parliamentary Assembly Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights.

To the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE):
· Through the High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Representative on Freedom of the Media, work with the government of Greece and the Turkish minority community in Greece to address problems identified in this report, including discrimination against the Turkish minority with respect to citizenship rights, employment, freedom of expression, religious practice, language, and education.

To the government of the United States:
· Raise the issue of the Turkish minority with the Greek government; and

· Continue to monitor the situation of the minority.

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