How Probation and Parole Feed Mass Incarceration in the United States

The 225-page report, “Revoked: How Probation and Parole Feed Mass Incarceration in the United States,” finds that supervision – probation and parole – drives high numbers of people, disproportionately those who are Black and brown, right back to jail or prison, while in large part failing to help them get needed services and resources. In states examined in the report, people are often incarcerated for violating the rules of their supervision or for low-level crimes, and receive disproportionate punishment following proceedings that fail to adequately protect their fair trial rights.


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  • Abuses Ahead of Burundi’s Constitutional Referendum

    This report documents violations and abuses by state security forces, intelligence services, members of the ruling party’s youth league – the Imbonerakure – and others close to the ruling party, in the year and a half leading up to the referendum.

  • The Narrowing of Democratic Space in Burundi

    This 69-page report documents abuses including torture, arbitrary arrests, banning of opposition activities, and harassment of civil society groups. Human Rights Watch called on the government to end the abuses and to strengthen institutional mechanisms to promote accountability by government officials and security forces.
  • Lack of Accountability for Political Violence in Burundi

    This 47-page report is based on four months of field research in Bujumbura and four rural provinces. The report documents numerous incidents of violence, at least one fatal, carried out by and against members of political parties as a means of settling political scores.

  • Official Complicity and Impunity

    This 105-page report finds that authorities have at times been directly involved in public killings and beatings of suspected criminals, or have facilitated them by forming untrained "security committees" that operate at the margins of the law. In other cases, officials have stood by while mobs attacked alleged criminals.
  • Institutionalizing Discrimination against Gays and Lesbians in Burundi

    This report consists of narratives and photos of Burundian gays and lesbians that bring to life the daily struggles faced by the small lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in Burundi.
  • Political Violence and Repression in Burundi

    This 86-page report details cases in which both the FNL and the government, dominated by the ruling National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie, CNDD-FDD), have used political violence and intimid
  • Police Abuses in Burundi

    This 42-page report documents 21 cases of beatings and torture of civilians carried out in October 2007 by a special reserve unit known as Rapid Mobile Intervention Group (Groupement Mobile d’Intervention Rapide, GMIR) in Muramvya province.
  • The Human Rights Council’s Backlog of Work

    As it enters its second year, the Council must take hold of the many situations that “require the HRC’s attention,” and take action of some sort to address them. The HRC’s efforts to address these situations will provide an important indication of its ability to fulfil the purpose for which it was created.
  • Violations of the Rights of Children in Detention in Burundi

    This 62-page report documents the many types of human rights violations that children experience in pre-trial detention, in the investigation and prosecution of cases, and while in prison.
  • Abuses with Impunity at the National Intelligence Service in Burundi

    This 33-page report, “‘We flee when we see them’: Abuses with Impunity by the Burundi National Intelligence Service,” documents five incidents of extrajudicial executions, as well as instances of torture and arbitrary detention. Some detainees were beaten with batons until they lost consciousness.
  • Detention of Poor Patients in Burundian Hospitals

    This 75-page report documents how Burundian hospitals in 2005 detained hundreds of indigent patients, sometimes in inhumane conditions. Many of those detained were women giving birth who unexpectedly needed caesarian deliveries.
  • FNL Child Soldiers in Burundi

    During the thirteen years of civil war in Burundi, children were recruited and used as combatants and general help by all sides in the conflict.
  • This document details recent violations by both the Burundian government and the rebel National Liberation Forces (Forces Nationales de Libération, or FNL), with which the government is still at war.