The conflict in Syria continues to be characterized by human rights and international humanitarian law violations, with over 400,000 dying since 2011. The Syrian government, and its allies, raced to secure territories and consolidate gains, using prohibited chemical weapons, indiscriminately attacking civilians and withholding humanitarian aid. Practices of arbitrary detention and torture remain widespread. Anti-government armed groups have attacked civilians, kidnapped, and tortured. Civilian casualties from U.S. and US-led coalition airstrikes against ISIS surged, while ISIS planted landmines and used human shields. Host countries continue to push Syrian refugees to return, employing administrative and physical barriers to restrict their rights.