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Chronology of Clashes between Student Protesters and Government Security Forces, March 11, 1998 - May 2, 1998

The chronology that follows is based on a sampling of on-line press reports, including reports published in both Jakarta-based and regional Indonesian newspapers, on-line descriptions of incidents published by independent Indonesian news agencies (including SiaR and AJInews), on-line student descriptions of demonstrations and clashes, and, where indicated, telephone interviews with student leaders and legal aid officials familiar with the events. The chronology includes only those clashes that resulted in serious injuries to students or security personnel, and does not include scores of less serious altercations that characterized many of the face-to-face confrontations between students and security personnel on campuses throughout the country. Although we have tried to include brief descriptions of each of the major clashes that have occurred during this period, the chronology is based largely on a limited set of secondary sources and is therefore necessarily incomplete.

March 11: Universitas Sebelas Maret (March 11 University) -- Surakarta

About ten students were injured, seven of whom were treated at a local hospital, when students clashed with police and troops at the entrance to the March 11 University campus in Surakarta. The demonstration began peacefully in the morning, with a march through campus, a large crowd of protesters carrying banners and posters and demanding immediate political and economic reform. The demonstrators then assembled at the campus gates where they were met by combined police (Polresta) and military (Korem) forces. After a mass prayer at noon, the students reassembled. During the subsequent confrontation, some of the students began throwing stones, chunks of asphalt, and other projectiles at security forces, and pushing and shoving broke out between students and police. Security forces responded by firing tear gas to disperse the crowd and beating demonstrators with rifle butts (gagang senapan) and police batons. The demonstration eventually dispersed at about 3:30.208

March 11: November 10 Institute of Technology -- Surabaya

Eleven students were injured, seven of whom were treated at a local hospital, and at least one mobile brigade officer was beaten when about 5,000 students clashed with local police and anti-riot mobile brigade police (Brimob) at a campus rally at the November 10 Institute of Technology in Surabaya (Institut Teknology Sepuluh Nopember or ITS). The protest began at 8 a.m. when students from ten universities gathered at the ITS canteen for an open forum. Speakers denounced the president and parliament. At about 9:40, the students (crowd estimates range from several hundred to several thousand) marched in rows to the traffic circle at the entrance to the campus, intending to march through city streets to the campus of Airlangga University (Surabaya’s premier public university), three kilometers away. The students carried banners and posters carrying slogans such as: “Repeal the Five Political Laws,” “Refuse to Bow Down, Demand Accountability,” “You Drink the People’s Blood,” “Break Up the Parliamentary Farce.” At the gates, the protesters’ path was blocked by hundreds of police. Singing the national anthem, students attempted to push their way through the arrayed security personnel, but were beaten back. A number of attempts by student leaders and military officials to negotiate a settlement failed to resolve the impasse. For the next two hours, students and security personnel engaged in a series of tense confrontations and clashes. The students eventually dispersed at about noon after the students read a declaration rejecting the Indonesian parliament’s re-election of Soeharto and calling on the parliament to convene an emergency session.209

March 16: National University -- Jakarta

One journalist suffered minor injuries and a number of anti-riot mobile brigade police (Brimob) were injured when hit by stones during a confrontation between students and police and troops at the entrance to the National University in Jakarta. The clash occurred when a few hundred students, who had been protesting the Indonesian parliament’s re-election of Soeharto and the make-up of his new cabinet, sought to march off-campus to a local public assembly hall (balai rakyat). At the campus gates, the students’ path was blockedby about thirty mobile brigade police backed by troops (pasukan anti-huru-hara) from the Jakarta regional military command (Kodam Jaya). When students began to push forward and security personnel brandished batons, students began throwing stones, injuring a number of mobile brigade police.210

March 17: March 11 University -- Surakarta

Twenty-five students were treated at a local hospital, one with a broken leg, after students clashed with anti-riot police and troops outside the gates of the March 11 University (Universitas Sebelas Maret or UNS) in Surakarta. The protesters, who included students from a number of area universities, were coordinated by leaders of a student organization called the “UNS Student Family” (Keluarga Mahasiswa UNS). The protest began in the morning with a peaceful rally and open forum near the gates of the campus. Protesters denounced the parliamentary session which had reelected Soeharto to a seventh five-year term, called for price controls, and criticized the make-up of the new cabinet. When the protesters spilled out into the street in front of the campus, intending to march to the local public assembly hall (balai kota), a tense confrontation ensued between protesters and anti-riot police (Brimob) and troops (pasukan anti-huru-hara Korem). Security personnel, backed by two armored personnel vehicles equipped with tear gas launchers, formed a human wall blocking the students path. According to the Surakarta police chief, Colonel Riswahyono, the security forces moved in when student protesters threw stones at security personnel. In the ensuing clash, police used tear gas to disperse the students and beat back demonstrators with police batons.211

March 18: Indonesian Cooperatives Institute -- Bandung

More than ten students were injured in a clash with security forces in front of the Indonesian Cooperatives Institute (Institut Kooperasi Indonesia) in Bandung. The demonstration began with a peaceful rally at about 10 a.m. When about one hundred student demonstrators moved toward the entrance to the campus, intending to take their march to the streets, their path was blocked by about 150 anti-riot police (personel anti-huru-hara kepolisian resor Sumedang). After negotiations failed to produce any results, students tried to push their way through the wall of anti-riot police, and the police responded by beating back the protestors with police batons. The rally dispersed at 12:30.212

March 19: Lampung University -- Lampung, Sumatra

At least seventy-two students were arrested and dozens were injured when several thousand students from a number of area universities, institutes, and high schools clashed with police and troops at the entrance to Lampung University on March 19.213 According to a report by the Indonesian Legal Aid Foundation (Yayasan Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Indonesia or YLBHI), detainees were interrogated without the benefit of lawyers or due process, families of the detainees were not notified of the arrests, and five students were tortured at the time of arrest and during interrogations.

The protest at Lampung University, organized by an alliance of student groups from eight campuses called the Lampung Student and Youth Family (Keluarga Mahasiswa, Pemuda dan Pelajar Lampung), began with the singing of the national anthem at about 9:30 a.m. The demonstration continued with a series of open fora in which students demanded such things as immediate economic and political reform, removal of Soeharto as president, an end to the political role of the armed forces, repeal of the “five political laws” governing political parties and elections, immediate price controls and attention to the needs of newly unemployed workers, rejection of the Currency Board scheme proposed by Soeharto, and unity between students and the public. Students also carried posters and banners with slogans such as “Reform or Death” and “Three Demands: Political Reform, Bring Down Soeharto, Bring Down Prices.”

The conflict occurred shortly after noon when students, seeking to march into the city, confronted a large contingent of security personnel near the campus entrance, including hundreds of local and regional police (Kepolisian Resor Kota Lampung; Kepolisian Daerah Lampung), and troops from the regional and district military commands (Korem and Kodim) backed by four large anti-riot trucks and twenty vehicles from the district military command. A number of students, blocked from leaving the campus, began to pelt the security personnel with stones, and security forces responded by throwing stones back at students. According to a student at the scene, the troop commander then fired two warning shots. A military spokesman confirmed that shots were fired, but says they were not fired by securityforces. After the shots were fired, the military used tear gas and high pressure water cannons to disperse the students, and security forces then moved in, clubbing students with batons, dragging detained students to police vehicles, some by their hair.

The tense confrontation continued into the late afternoon, with demonstrators continuing to protest while negotiations were held between student leaders, military and police commanders and university officials. Students claimed that they detained a number of retired police officers who had come to negotiate with university staff and held them hostage until the authorities agreed to release the students who had been detained. Military sources denied the report, saying that the officers were on campus as part of the larger effort to resolve the conflict and had not been taken hostage.214

March 25: March 11 University -- Surakarta

Two students were hospitalized and around fifty others, including ten security personnel, were treated for tear gas and other injuries when students clashed with riot police and troops at the UNS campus. The demonstration began peacefully at 9:30 a.m. with a rally and a march through campus. Students then held a long rally just outside the campus gates, police and troops forming a wall to prevent the students from proceeding any further. Students used raffia twine to demarcate the boundaries of the demonstration. Because the student boundary extended about ten meters past the campus entrance, security forces insisted that the students move back toward the campus. When the students refused to back away, security forces advanced. After some tense moments, an agreement was reached by student and police negotiators. Both the students and security personnel retreated and the demonstration continued. At about 2:30 p.m., however, the students again moved forward. The security forces then moved forward again and the two sides clashed. Students threw stones and security forces used tear gas and batons to beat back the students. The police chief (Kapolresta) later claimed that the demonstration had been infiltrated by students affiliated with the banned left-wing People’s Democratic Party (Partai Rakyat Demokrasi or PRD) and its affiliate, the Indonesian Student Solidarity for Democracy (Solidaritas Mahasiswa Indonesia untuk Demokrasi or SMID). The student demonstration coordinator dismissed the allegation, saying “We are demonstrating because we are concerned with public suffering, and it is disappointing to find that, instead, we are accused of being PRD [members].”215

April 2-4: Gadja Mada University -- Yogyakarta

Over eighty students and at least six security personnel were injured when students clashed with hundreds of security forces during a coordinated series of protests at Gadja Mada University (Universitas Gadja Mada or UGM) in Yogyakarta, Central Java, on April 2, 3 and 4. At least twenty of those injured were hospitalized.

The protests began on April 2 with a rally organized by a student group called the Committee of the People’s Struggle for Change (Komite Perjuangan Rakyat untuk Perubahan, KPRP). The KPRP was organized by, among others, a number of leftist student members of SMID, known on campus as the “radical pro-democracy group.” At the initiation of the organizers, participants in the action included not only UGM students, but street musicians, pedicab drivers, housewives, workers, and high school students. Students began to gather at about 9 a.m. at the social and political sciences faculty. Over the course of the next hour, the protesters marched across campus, visiting faculties of law, philosophy, psychology, and literature, holding open forums at each location, the crowd gathering in numbers along the way. Speakers called for price controls, political and economic reform, and the removal of Soeharto by a special session of parliament. An East Timorese student carrying a Freitlin flag also gave a speech at one open forum, as did a number of street musicians.

At about 10 a.m. the procession, estimated at about 2,000, gathered at a traffic circle in front of a broad boulevard leading out of campus, the protesters intending to take their protest to the local parliament located in the city center. The boulevard was blocked by an estimated 300-400 anti-riot police and military personnel, including local and regional police (Polres Sleman; Polda Yogyakarta), infantry (Yonif 403 Yogyakarta), air force troops (Paskhas AU Yogyakarta), troops from the district military command (Kodim Sleman), and elite special forces troops (Kopassus). After a two-hour, often tense standoff, during which time negotiations between protest leaders and police officials failed to reach a compromise, students moved en masse to penetrate the police barricades. As the students moved forward, some students allegedly began throwing stones at the troops. Security forces responded by throwing stones in return, using tear gas and a water cannon to disperse the protesters, and indiscriminately striking protesters with batons, kicking and punching fallen students, and pursuing fleeing students onto the campus grounds. In the fracas, a group of students overturned a minivan believed tobelong to one of the members of the security apparatus. An estimated fifty-three students were wounded in the clash, at least seventeen of whom were treated at a local hospital.216

A larger demonstration was held the following day. This time the demonstration was coordinated by the League of Yogyakarta Muslim Students (Liga Mahasiswa Muslim Yogyakarta or LMMY), a coalition of students from a number of Muslim student groups. Like the first demonstration, the protest began at 9 a.m. with a march around campus and a series of speeches in a number of different locations. The students eventually gathered at the traffic circle at the entrance to the campus, and, at about 11:30, they were joined by students from the local teacher’s training college who themselves had briefly clashed with security forces on their own campus earlier in the day.

After a break for the Friday noon prayer, the students again sought to march into the city, this time to bring their grievances to the palace of Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, but their path was again blocked by about 500 security personnel including mobile brigade police (Brimob Kompi 515 Gondowulung; Brimob Polda Jateng) and armed forces infantry (Batalyon Infanteri 403/Wirasada Pratista Kentungan). When negotiations again failed to produce a compromise, the standoff gave way to violence when tens of students began throwing rocks and at least two firecrackers at the security forces. Again the troops counterattacked with tear gas and a baton charge, this time sending in armored personnel carriers to disperse the students, pursuing fleeing students far into the campus, kicking over dozens of student motorcycles, ransacking the offices of the student cooperative and beating students who had taken refuge there, and destroying windows in the campus student center, possibly in retaliation for the student attack the previous day on the minivan. An estimated thirty-three protesters were injured in the clash, many with head wounds, and at least six police suffered injuries when hit by stones thrown by students.217

A third demonstration was held on April 4. This protest was organized by a group called the “UGM Student Family,” a body formed by the university-recognized student senate and supported by a large number of UGM professors and lecturers. An estimated 25,000 students gathered for the rally to protest the violence of the previous two days. Although the rally was generally peaceful and students did not attempt to leave the campus grounds, two police intelligence agents were injured in mob attacks by angry students after the agents were spotted mingling with the crowd. One of the agents was seriously injured in the attack, notwithstanding the efforts of nationally prominent Muslim opposition leader Amien Rais, a speaker at the rally, who happened to be nearby and intervened to stop the beating. Students destroyed a tape recorder seized from one of the agents, but returned intact a revolver and walkie-talkie taken from the agents.218

April 3: State Teacher Training Institute -- Yogyakarta

Tens of students were injured in a clash between student demonstrators and police at the Yogyakarta Teacher Training Institute (Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pengetahuan or IKIP). The chairman of the IKIP student senate was seriously injured, requiring stitches on his scalp and ear, and many other students were beaten when security forces cracked down on demonstrators seeking to march to a public square in the northern section of the city.219

April 8: Airlangga University -- Surabaya

At least sixteen students were injured, nine requiring in-patient hospital care, when student demonstrators from thirteen universities in Surabaya clashed with security forces at the gates of the Airlangga University campus. At least two security officers also suffered injuries. The protest began about noon in front of the university library. The demonstrators then marched directly to the campus gates, intending to march through the city. At the gates, the marchers’ path was blocked by riot control troops (pasukan Pengendalian Massa). Over the next hour and a half there were a number of skirmishes, with the crowd of students, numbering about one thousand,trying several times to break through the wall of troops. At 1:30, the security forces were reinforced by a truckload of mobile brigade police (pasukan Dakhura Brimob) in riot gear, and shortly thereafter, by an armored personnel carrier equipped with a water cannon which sprayed a foul-smelling, discolored liquid into the crowd. Students responded by throwing stones at the security forces and police and troops then moved in on the students, beating protesters with batons, kicking fallen students, and throwing stones back at the students. At 2:05, calm was restored and students held a rally and open forum before dispersing at 2:30.220 On the same day, a number of student demonstrators at Dr. Soetomo University, also in Surabaya, were hurt in a clash with security forces when they sought to march to the Airlangga University campus to join the larger demonstration.221

April 13: General Soedirman University -- Purwokerto

Ten students and three police officers were injured when student demonstrators and security forces clashed at the entrance to General Soedirman University in Purwokerto. The demonstration began at 9 a.m. and was coordinated by an organization formed by student senate leaders from five Purwokerto universities called the Purwokerto Student Action Front for Reform (Front Aksi Purwokerto untuk Reformasi or FM-MPR). The confrontation occurred when several hundred students, seeking to march to the local parliament, marched to the entrance of the campus, where they were met by police (Polres Banyumas), mobile brigade police (Brimob) and crowd control troops (pasukan Dalmas). After an initial attempt to penetrate the wall of security forces was beaten back, the students retreated briefly. After singing a protest song (Maju Tak Gentar), students again tried to force their way through police barricades, and a major clash began. For the next hour, students were beaten back with batons, and students threw stones at the security personnel. Calm was finally restored when the five student senate leaders read aloud a declaration. The students then returned to campus and continued the rally peacefully on campus grounds.222

April 16: General Soedirman University -- Purwokerto

Four security personnel and twenty-five students were injured during a second clash at General Soedirman University. One student was treated at a local hospital with a three centimeter gash on his head after having been hit with a police baton. The demonstration, coordinated again by student senate leaders in the FM-MPR group, began with a march through campus. The students then held a rally at the south entrance of the campus. A few skirmishes broke out between some of the students and riot police, who again had formed a human barricade at the gates to prevent the demonstrators from leaving the campus. When a group of representatives from one of the participating universities was addressing the crowd of some 1,000 students, stones were thrown at the speakers three times in quick succession. The students, believing that the stones had been thrown by security forces amassed at the gate, began throwing stones at security personnel. A violent clash between students and the security forces ensued. The commander of the security forces later denied that security personnel were responsible for the initial stone-throwing.223

April 16: Bandung Institute of Technology -- Bandung

Nine ITB students were injured when protesters tried to march off campus and faced police and troops (Divisi Siliwangi). The demonstration began in the morning with an open forum in which student speakers called for immediate opening of the political system. Roughly 5,000 students from ten area universities participated in the rally. Shortly after the midday prayer, the demonstrators, intending to march to the Padjadjaran University campus just over a kilometer away (students at Padjadjaran University had clashed briefly with security forces the previous day), began to march through the campus gates. About fifty meters out, they were met by anti-riot police (Dalmas Polda Jabar), backed by armed troops (petugas dari Zipur bersenjata). For almost an hour, student leaders and police officials negotiated without result. Students then began to push forward, forcing the security personnel to retreat a few meters. One of the soldiers’ rifles then went off, apparently accidentally. Although security officials immediately informed the students that the rifle had gone off accidentally, the situation grew increasingly tense, with a number of skirmishes. After another half hour of tense confrontation, marked by periodic pushing and shoving between students and security personnel, violence broke out, with students throwing stones and otherprojectiles at security forces and security forces using batons to beat back the students. When the situation calmed, students retreated onto campus grounds and continued the demonstration into the late afternoon.224

April 17: March 11 University -- Surakarta

One hundred and three students were injured, many overcome by tear gas, during a clash with riot police and troops at the entrance to the Kentingan campus of March 11 University (UNS). At least five students were treated at a local hospital, one with serious head wounds. Seventeen security personnel were also injured, some of whom were treated at a nearby army hospital, and twenty nearby residents were overcome with tear gas. The protest at UNS began at about 10 am, with students from a number of area universities and a number of high school students participating in the rally. The students, carrying banners calling for price controls on basic commodities, a new president and a new cabinet, gathered at the campus gates with the intention of making a public march. When a large contingent of security forces, backed up by support vehicles and at least one armored personnel carrier, tried to force the students back onto campus, students responded by throwing stones. Police then sent at least ten tear gas canisters into the crowd and one student responded by throwing a Molotov cocktail in the direction of the police. Because of heavy winds, tear gas blew back in the direction of the security forces and into a nearby residential neighborhood. Twenty-five riot shields reportedly were cracked or broken in the clash.225

April 21: Bandung Islamic University -- Bandung

Seven students and six security personnel were injured in a clash between security forces and about 1,000 demonstrators.226

April 22: Padjadjaran University -- Jatinangor, Bandung

Twenty-four students and ten security personnel were injured when students from six Bandung universities clashed with security forces at the entrance to the Padjadjaran University campus.227

April 23: Udayana University -- Denpasar, Bali

At least twelve students were injured when about 1,000 students clashed with security personnel near the entrance to the university. Soni Qodri, head of the Bali Legal Aid Institute, was also injured in the clash.228

April 23: Medan Institute of Technology -- Medan, Sumatra

One student was shot and five other students were wounded in a clash with security forces at the campus entrance.229

April 25: University of North Sumatra -- Medan, Sumatra

Nine students were injured, three shot with rubber bullets, during a clash between thousands of students and security forces.230

April 25: Mataram University -- Mataram, Lombok

At least ten students were injured when more than 1,000 students clashed with security forces at the campus gates.231

April 25: Jambi University -- Jambi, Sumatra

Two students were injured, one wounded with a rubber bullet, during a clash between about 1,500 students and security forces. The students were seeking to leave the campus and join students from the Jambi Institute for Islamic Studies (Institut Agama Islam Negeri or IAIN) who were holding a rally at the local parliament building.232

April 25: Unisma -- Malang, East Java

Thirty-seven students and security personnel were injured, eight students requiring hospital care, after a clash between students and security forces.233

April 27: Mataram University -- Lombok

Six students were injured and hundreds were overcome by tear gas during a clash between students and security forces. The clash occurred as students were seeking to march from the campus to the local hospital where students injured in a clash with security forces on April 25 were being treated.234

April 29: Sahid University -- Jakarta

Four students were injured, one of whom, a female student, required six stitches on her forehead, after a clash between students and security forces.235

April 29: University of North Sumatra (Universitas Sumatra Utara or USU) -- Medan

Tens of students from a number of universities and secondary schools were injured as about 4,000 students clashed with security forces on a city street near the USU campus. Police used tear gas and rubber bullets. Hundreds of shots were fired. The students, reportedly joined by many non-students, threw smoke bombs at security forces, and burned two police motorcycles. A number of shop windows were also reported broken. Authorities closed the school for one week following the clash.236

April 30: National Institute of Technology -- Malang, East Java

Ten students were injured when students clashed with security forces on the street in front of the campus.237

April 30: Diponegoro University -- Semarang, Central Java

One student was knocked out after being hit by security forces and several other students were injured during a clash at the campus gates.238

April 30: Syarif Hidayatullah Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) -- Jakarta

Four security officers were treated for head wounds when security forces clashed with hundreds of students seeking to leave the grounds of the institute.239

May 1: Nommensen University and Islamic University of North Sumatra (Universitas Islam Sumatra Utara or UISU) -- Medan

In separate clashes at Nommensen University and UISU, tens of students from several universities and at least one lecturer were injured during violent clashes with security forces. The protests began with peaceful campus rallies in the morning, but turned violent when students sought to march through the city. Security forces used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse the crowds. Students threw improvised Molotov bombs as well as stones at security forces, and burned tires on the street.240

May 2: students from various universities -- Medan

Dozens of students and security personnel were injured in clashes at the gates of several campuses in Medan, some shot with rubber bullets. Some of the worst violence occurred near Nommensen University, where students joined a large crowd of non-students. The crowd attacked a showroom where Indonesia’s “national car” was on display, a political target because one of President Soeharto’s sons was awarded the production contract for the controversial project. Demonstrators then dragged the car onto the street and burned it. The crowd also burned a pick-up truck and smashed the windows of several shops, a bank, and a Kentucky Fried Chicken outlet near the campus.241

May 2: Matraman Indonesian and Foreign Languages Institute (ABA-ABI) -- Jakarta

Four students were injured and many others were overcome by tear gas in a clash with mobile brigade police.242

May 2: Yarsi University -- Jakarta

Three security officers were injured in a clash with students at Yarsi University.243

May 2: Rawamangunan Teacher Training Institute (IKIP) -- Jakarta

At least thirty-three students required hospital care, six of whom had been hit by rubber bullets, and twenty-eight security personnel were wounded after a clash between security forces and about 2,000 students.244

May 2: students from various universities -- Jember, East Java

Two students were injured, one knocked unconscious when hit by a security officer with the butt of an M-16 rifle, when security forces intervened to prevent students belonging to a group called Unified Jember Student Action group (Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Jember) from marching to the local parliament building.245

May 2: National Institute of Technology; Merdeka University -- Malang

Students from six universities clashed with security forces in separate incidents at Merdeka University and the National Institute of Technology. Fifty-two students and at least forty-nine security personnel were reported injured in the clashes. Students at ITN reported after the clash that security forces fired live ammunition at the protesters, that classroom walls and the rector’s office were damaged by bullet holes, and that shell casings were found on campus grounds. At least one student was grazed by a bullet.246

208 "Semprot Gas Air Mata, Bakar Ikan Asin,” Suara Merdeka Online, March 12, 1998; "Ribuan Mahasiswa UGM Tuntut Kabinet yang Bersih,” Republika Online, March 12, 1998; "Aksi mahasiswa di berbagai kota diwarnai bentrok dengan aparat,” SiaR, March 13, 1998.

209 "Korban Bentrok Surabaya,” Tempo Interaktif, March 14, 1998 (quoting data from the Surabaya legal aid office); "Ribuan Mahasiswa UGM Tuntut Kabinet yang Bersih,” Republika Online, March 12, 1998; "Aksi Keprihatinan Mahsiswa Diwarnai Bentrokan,” Kompas Online, March 12, 1998; “Aksi mahasiswa di berbagai kota diwarnai bentrok dengan aparat,” SiaR, March 13, 1998.

210 "Students Clash as Indonesia Cabinet Sworn In,” Reuter’s, March 16, 1998; “Mahasiswa Bentrok dengan Brimob,” SiaR, March 16, 1998.

211 "Bentrok di UNS, 25 Mahasiswa Luka-luka,” Kompas Online, March 18, 1998; "Bentrok dengan Aparat, 21 Orang Masuk Rumah Sakit,” SiaR, March 17, 1998.

212 "Bentrokan di Bandung, Belasan Mahasiswa Luka Memar,” Kompas Online, March 19, 1998.

213 "Jangan Mengarah pada Gerakan Anarkis,” Kompas Online, March 21, 1998.

214 "Laporan Akhir Peristiwa Universitas Lampung,” Indonesia Daily News Online, March 24, 1998; "Mahasiswa Lampung Bentrok dengan Aparat Intel,” SiaR, March 20, 1998; "Minister of Education and Culture Orders Report on UNS Incident,” Kompas Online, March 20, 1998; "Jangan Mengarah pada Gerakan Anarkis,” Kompas Online, March 21, 1998.

215 "Bentrokan Kembali Terjadi di UNS, 39 Luka-luka,” Suara Merdeka Online, March 26, 1998. See also "Again, Clash between Students and Security Apparatus at 11 March University (UNS),” Kompas Online, March 26, 1998.

216 See Yogyakarta Legal Aid Institute preliminary report, reprinted in “Rekapitulasi Aksi Anti Kekerasan di Yogyakarta,” SiaR, April 8, 1998. This account was supplemented by telephone interviews on April 16 with Yogyakarta legal aid staff and one eyewitness to the clash. A number of students at the Sunan Kalidjaga Institute for Islamic Studies (Institut Agama Islam Negeri Yogyakarta or IAIN Yogyakarta) were also hurt, though none seriously, when security forces beat back several attempts by demonstrators to march to the local parliament. "Kekerasan Pecah di UGM dan IAIN Yogya,” Kompas Online, April 3, 1998.

217 "UGM Makin Rusuh,” Kompas Online, April 4, 1998.

218 "Rector UGM: Kekuatan Luar Jangan Masuk Kampus,” Kompas Online, April 5, 1998; "Menyusul Aksi Unjuk Rasa di UGM, Dua Polisi Cedera Dihajar Massa, Republika Online, April 6, 1998.

219 "UGM Makin Rusuh,” Kompas Online, April 4, 1998.

220 "Clash between Demonstrators and Security, 16 Students Injured,” Kompas Online, April 9, 1998; "Students Clash in Indonesia Campus Protest,” Reuter’s, April 8, 1998; "Kronologi Demo di Unair,” Surabaya Post Online, April 9, 1998.

221 "Menerobos, Diseret, dan Dikeroyok,” Surabaya Post Online, April 9, 1998.

222 "Students Chant ‘Down with Soeharto,’” Reuter’s, April 14, 1998; “Demo Lima PT Purwokerto, 13 Luka,” Republika Online, April 14, 1998.

223 "Bentrok Lagi, 29 Luka,” Bernas Online, April 17, 1998.

224 "Bentrokan di Bandung dan Malang,” Media Indonesia Online, April 17, 1998.

225 "Unjuk Rasa di UNS Kembali Panas,” Republika Online, April 18, 1998; "Mahasiswa - Aparat Terlibat Bentrokan,” Pikiran Rakyat Online, April 18, 1998.

226 "Tujuh Mahasiswa Cedera, Enam Aparat Terluka,” Kompas Online, April 22, 1998.

227 "Clash Again Highlights Student Action in Bandung,” Kompas Online, April 23, 1998.

228 "Student protests continue, violence mars several,” Jakarta Post, April 24, 1998.

229 "Usut Tuntas Penembak Mahasiswa ITM,” Waspada Online, April 25, 1998.

230 "Sema Mengadu Ke Komnas HAM,” Waspada Online, April 27, 1998; "Ribuan Mahasiswa USU Dan UISU Unjukrasa,” Waspada Online, April 26,1998.

231 "Indonesian student fight police at anti-government rally,” Associated Press, April 25, 1998.

232 "Unjuk Rasa Mahasiswa Berlanjut Dimana-mana,” Kompas Online, April 26, 1998.

233 "Lautan Jilbab ‘Pindah’ ke Semarang,” Bernas Online, April 26, 1998.

234 "Enam Mahasiswa Luka-luka,” Kompas Online, April 29, 1998.

235 "Aparat Halangi Mahasiswa Turun ke Jalan,” Jawa Pos Online, April 30, 1998.

236 "Mahasiswa Lima PT Turjal: Belasan Mahasiswa Luka dan Dua Sepeda Motor Petugas Dibakar,” Waspada Online, April 30, 1998.

237 "Ali Sadikin Muncul di Tengah Mahasiswa,” Jawa Pos Online, May 1, 1998.

238 "Ribuan Mahasiswa Berbagai Daerah Kembali Unjukrasa,” Waspada Online, May 1, 1998.

239 "Students Continue Protests, Some Violence Reported,” Jakarta Post, May 2, 1998.

240 "Aksi Unjuk Rasa Berlanjut: Mahasiswa dan Masyarakat Bentrok Dengan Petugas,” Waspada Online, May 2, 1998; "Medan Students Again Clash with the Security Service,” Kompas Online, May 2, 1998.

241 "Aksi Makin Deras Korban Jatuh Lagi,” Bernas Online, May 3, 1998; "Campuses Quiet after Massive Student Protests,” Tempo Interaktif, May 4, 1998.

242 "Bentrokan Warnai Aksi Mahasiswa,” Kompas Online, May 3, 1998.

243 Ibid.

244 Ibid.

245 "Aksi di Sejumlah Kota Turun ke Jalan dan Bentrok,” Jawa Pos Online, May 3, 1998.

246 “Laporan Sementara Demonstrasi di ITN, UNMUH dan UNIBRAW, Sabtu 2 Mei 1998,” Indonesia Daily News Online, May 4, 1998; "Aksi di Sejumlah Kota Turun ke Jalan dan Bentrok,” Jawa Pos Online, May 3, 1998.

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