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Among the most deeply rooted legacies of New Order rule is the pervasive militarization of Indonesian society. In the Soeharto era, militarization was reflected on campus in routine intelligence-gathering operations and surveillance of student life, arbitrary decrees from military authorities restricting students’ right to demonstrate, use of combined police and military force to contain campus rallies (the police command structure is part of the armed forces hierarchy), and the frequent harassment, arrest, and sometimes torture of campus activists. Under the New Order, surveillance of campus life by police and military intelligence agents became routine: