To the Ethiopian Government

* Abide by the provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and the international human rights instruments to which Ethiopia is party, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, taking measures to this effect to:

* guarantee the physical and psychological integrity of all Ethiopians currently in detention, and immediately release those illegally detained;

* put an end to the practice of illegal or arbitrary detention as well as ill-treatment or torture of detainees and extrajudicial executions;

* guarantee the independence of the judiciary as required by the Ethiopian constitution and international law. Particularly, allocate sufficient financial resources to the judiciary, ensure the proper training of judges and others involved in the administration of justice, and hold police and other officials who interfere with the independence of the judiciary or refuse to obey court orders accountable before the law;

* respect freedom of association, by immediately lifting all legal and bureaucratic obstacles hindering the registration of existing and new nongovernmental organizations;

* cease the arbitrary detention and harassment of activists in nonviolent civil organizations. Stop all unlawful attacks on these organizations in the form of raids against their offices and projects, confiscation of their property, and freezing of their bank accounts;

* respect freedom of assembly, by lifting restrictions on political meetings and public demonstrations imposed by law and in practice, and halting arbitrary police actions to ban and disperse such meetings and demonstrations;

* respect freedom of expression, by lifting arbitrary restrictions on the print and public broadcasting media; and ceasing the detention and imprisonment of journalists for the expression of their opinions;

* respect academic freedom, by removing all restrictions on faculty and students' rights to associate and assemble;

* recognize the rights of Ethiopian human rights defenders to monitor, investigate, and report on human rights abuses in the country; and their rights to associate with others nationally and internationally in pursuit of the promotion of human rights and their protection in the country.

* Establish a civilian, accountable police force, and strengthen the training of its personnel on issues of due process of law and on human rights standards and protections. To that effect:

* conduct an independent inquiry into the killing of Assefa Maru, executive committee member of both the Ethiopian Teachers Association and the Ethiopian Human Rights Council, at the hands of police officers;

* investigate all other allegations of police abuse and improper treatment of detained persons;

* hold police officials responsible for such abuses accountable before the law.

* Establish a permanent human rights commission which is genuinely independent of the government, empowering it to:

* monitor and report on compliance with the human rights standards enshrined in the domestic legal system and the international instruments to which Ethiopia is party;

* establish its own priorities, which should include investigating reports of violations of the right to life and security of the person, and the right to freedom from torture and arbitrary arrest and detention;

* submit findings to judicial bodies so that perpetrators, including those within the security forces, are brought to justice;

* ensure that victims of abuses receive the adequate remedies that their cases call for, including protection for witnesses appearing before it and compensation for and rehabilitation of victims of abuses perpetrated by security forces.

To the International Community

Human Rights Watch urges members of the international community to press the government of Ethiopia to implement the above recommendations, in particular by using their economic support to the country to induce and to facilitate tangible human rights improvements. In particular:

* support efforts by organizations of civil society to promote human rights standards and monitor government's compliance;

* target assistance to the judiciary in order to improve its capacity and encourage its independence;

* encourage the establishment of a permanent independent human rights commission through the extension of financial and technical support.