Human Rights News

An Open Letter to the Delegates of the 48th Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND)

In a year when the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is chair of the governing body of the UN’s Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), we write to express concern about U.S. efforts to force a UNODC retreat from support of syringe exchange and other measures proven to contain the spread of HIV among drug users. Injection drug use accounts for the majority of HIV infections in dozens of countries in Asia and the former Soviet Union, including Russia, China, all of Central Asia, and much of Southeast Asia. In most countries outside Africa, the largest number of new infections now occurs among injection drug users. As UNODC director Antonio Maria Costa noted at the July 2004 International AIDS Conference, effective responses to injection driven AIDS epidemics require expanded HIV prevention, including syringe exchange, rather than policies that accelerate HIV infections through widespread and indiscriminate imprisonment.

" Silencing the United Nations on needle exchange is deadly diplomacy. The United States should be encouraging proven HIV prevention strategies, not attacking them. "
Jonathan Cohen of Human Rights Watch’s HIV/AIDS Program
  

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Unfortunately, recent events suggest that UNODC—under pressure from the United States—is being asked to withdraw support from proven HIV prevention strategies at precisely the moment when increased commitment to measures such as syringe exchange and opiate substitution treatment is needed. It is particularly alarming that the silencing of UNODC is occurring in a year when the agency is chair of UNAIDS’ Committee of Co-sponsoring Organizations and in a year when HIV prevention is a focus of thematic debate at the 48th meeting of the CND. Among the events that have particularly heightened our concern are:  
 
  • Mr. Costa, who last year expressed support for positive changes in the Russian criminal code, expansion of syringe exchange in countries facing injection driven epidemics and other measures to reduce drug-related harm, has apparently been rebuked by the U.S. State Department. Following a meeting with Robert Charles, U.S. Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Mr. Costa pledged to review all UNODC electronic and printed documents for references to “harm reduction” and to be “even more vigilant in the future.”  
     
  • In Southeast Asia, UNODC has suspended a program that sought reduce drug users’ vulnerability to HIV prevention through approaches that emphasized public health and drug users’ human rights, rather than punishment.  
     
  • Even syringe exchange, affirmed as an effective and essential part of HIV prevention by UNAIDS, WHO, and UN member nations, has become politically unpalatable. A November e-mail from a senior UNODC staff member asked junior staff to “to ensure that references to harm reduction and needle/syringe exchange are avoided in UNODC documents, publications and statements.”
 
 
We recognize that UNODC is dependent on contributions from donor nations, and that the U.S. is the single largest donor to UN drug control. At the same time, the lives of hundreds of thousands depend on sound, scientific approaches to HIV prevention. Numerous studies, including U.S. government studies, have found that strategies such as syringe exchange and methadone maintenance demonstrably diminish HIV transmission and other health risks. The fact that U.S. delegates declare the evidence in support of syringe exchange “unconvincing,” as they did in last year’s CND session, should not be allowed to determine the course of the UN drug control and HIV prevention efforts, which are inextricably and essentially linked. Nor should UNODC—a co-sponsor of UNAIDS, and an agency with an essential role to play in the course of the HIV epidemic—be asked to refrain from public statements about needle exchange simply because they do not fall within the realm of what the U.S. deems acceptable.  
 
Strategies that attempt solely to achieve abstinence from drug use do not constitute an acceptable alternative to programs, such as syringe exchange, that help active drug users protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. Experience has shown that “zero tolerance” drug control efforts can have the effect of driving injection drug users underground and away from drug treatment and other health services. This is particularly true where, as in many countries, counter-narcotics efforts lead to false arrest, beatings and extortion by police, prolonged detention without trial, forced drug treatment, disproportionate incarceration in cruel conditions and, in some cases, extrajudicial execution. Programs such as syringe exchange and opiate substitution, by contrast, both prevent HIV infection and can provide a bridge to other health services. Restricting these programs is a blatant infringement of drug users’ human right to health.  
 
As you gather this year to debate HIV/AIDS prevention and drug abuse, we respectfully urge you to support syringe exchange, opiate substitution treatment and other harm reduction approaches demonstrated to reduce HIV risk; to affirm the human rights of drug users to health and health services; and to reject efforts to overrule science and tie the hands of those working on the front lines. No less than the future of the HIV epidemic is at stake.  
 
cc: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS  
World Health Organization  
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights  
International Narcotics Control Board  
 
 
Organizations by region  
Asia  
AIZHIXING Institute of Health Education, Beijing, China  
 
Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN), Chiang Mai, Thailand  
 
Asia Pacific Rainbow, New Delhi, India  
 
Australian Drug Foundation, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Australian Injecting and Illicit Drug Users League, Darlinghurst, Australia  
 
Blue Diamond Society, Kathmandu, Nepal  
 
Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia and Yangon, Myanmar  
 
The Centre for Harm Reduction, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research & Public Health, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Community Health, Rehabilitation, Education & Awareness (CREA), Dhaka, Bangladesh  
 
Drug Action Committee of the City of Greater Geelong, Victoria, Australia  
 
Family Drug Support, Willoughby, Australia  
 
Health and Development Networks (HDN), Chiang Mai, Thailand  
 
ILGLAW – Asia, New Delhi, India  
 
Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, New Delhi, India  
 
Malaysian AIDS Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  
 
Malaysian Harm Reduction Working Group, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  
 
Northern Sydney Central Coast Health, Sydney, Australia  
 
Pinoy Plus Association, Manila, Philippines  
 
RISE, Peshawar, Pakistan  
 
Sharan—Society for Service to Urban Poverty, New Delhi, India  
 
Thai AIDS Treatment Action Group (TTAG), Bangkok, Thailand  
 
Thai Drug Users' Network (TDN), Bangkok, Thailand  
 
Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Melbourne, Australia  
 
VIVAIDS Inc., Fitzroy, Australia  
 
WartaAIDS, Jakarta, Indonesia  
 
Western Australian Substance Users Association, Bunbury, Australia  
 
Yayasan Spiritia, Jakarta, Indonesia  
 
 
Africa  
AfriCASO: African Council of Aids Service Organization, Dakar, Senegal  
 
Kenya AIDS NGOs Consortium (KANCO), Nairobi, Kenya  
 
Sheryl’s Orphans Children Home, Nairobi, Kenya  
 
UNDP/Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  
 
 
Europe/Central Asia  
Abraço—Associação de Apoio a Pessoas Infectadas e Afectadas pelo VIH /SIDA, Lisbon, Portugal  
 
Act Up—Paris, Paris, France  
 
Action Against AIDS Germany, Tubingen, Germany  
 
Actions Traitements, Paris, France  
 
AGIHAS (PLWHA Support group), Riga, Latvia  
 
AIDES NGO, Pantin Cedex, France  
 
AIDS Action Europe, Amsterdam, Netherlands  
 
AIDS Foundation East-West (AFEW), Moscow, Russia  
 
Aids-Hilfe Bonn e. V., Bonn, Germany  
 
AIDS Prevention Centre, Riga, Latvia  
 
AKZEPT E.V.—Bundesverband für akzeptierende Drogenarbeit und humane Drogenpolitik, Berlin, Germany  
 
Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), Amsterdam, Netherlands  
 
A.N.O., Prague, Czech Republic  
 
Associazione Mastropietro & Co., Turin, Italy  
 
Associazione Nazionale Italiana Lotta AIDS (A.L.A.), Milano, Italy  
 
Blupoint Drug Counselling Centre, Budapest, Hungary  
 
Bremen Institute for Drug Research, Bremen, Germany  
 
CA Odyseus, Bratislava, Slovakia  
 
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Women and Gender (ZFG), Oldenburg, Germany  
 
Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network, Vilnius, Lithuania  
 
The Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College, United Kingdom  
 
Charitable Foundation "Rehabilitation Center of Drug Addicts "Virtus", Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine  
 
The Chrysalis Drug Project, Hertford, United Kingdom  
 
Coalition on Vulnerable Population "I Can Live", Vilnius, Lithuania  
 
Community Organization of People Living with HIV & AIDS, Moscow, Russia  
 
Convictus Eesti, Tallinn, Estonia  
 
Cranstoun Drug Services, London, United Kingdom  
 
DIA+LOGS NGO, Support centre for those affected by HIV/AIDS, Riga, Latvia  
 
Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Suchtmedizin (vorm DGDS) e.V., Hamburg, Germany  
 
DroBeL - Drogenberatung Lehrte e. V., Lehrte, Germany  
 
Drogenberatung e.V., Bielefeld, Germany  
 
Drogprevenciós Alapítvány, Budapest, Hungary  
 
Drug Policy Project, Hungarian Civil Liberties Union, Budapest, Hungary  
 
Dublin AIDS Alliance Ltd., Dublin, Ireland  
 
Equal to Equal, Almaty, Kazakhstan  
 
Estima Associação, Leiria, Portugal  
 
Északi Támpont Egyesület, Budapest, Hungary  
 
European AIDS Treatment Group, Brussels, Belgium  
 
European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies (ENCOD), Antwerp, Belgium  
 
Evangelisches Stadtjugendpfarramt Gera, Gera, Germany  
 
Förderverein interdisziplinärer Sucht- und Drogen-forschung (FISD) e.V., Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Sucht-und drogen-forschung – ZIS, Hamburg, Germany  
 
Freundes- und Förderkreis Suchtkrankenhilfe e.V., Wuppertal, Germany  
 
GAT - Grupo Português de Activistas sobre Tratamentos de VIH/SIDA, Lisbon, Portugal  
 
George House Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom  
 
Grazia Zuffa, Fuoriluogo/Il Manifesto, Rome, Italy  
 
Greater Glasgow Drug Action Team, Glasgow, Scotland  
 
Grup Igia, Barcelona, Spain  
 
Grupo de Trabajo sobre Tratamientos del VIH (gTt), Barcelona, Spain  
 
Health and Social Development Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria  
 
Health Education Association NGO, Yerevan, Armenia  
 
Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, Warsaw, Poland  
 
Hemp Seed Association, Budapest, Hungary  
 
HIV Prevention Programme at Kekava, Riga, Latvia  
 
Hope-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria  
 
Indro e.V., Münster, Germany  
 
Initiative for Health Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria  
 
The Initiative of Drug Users' Mutual Support, Vilnius, Lithuania  
 
The Institute for Criminal Policy Research (ICPR), School of Law, King's College, London, United Kingdom  
 
Institut für Sozialpädagogik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany  
 
The International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW), London, United Kingdom  
 
International Harm Reduction Association, London, United Kingdom  
 
International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Kiev, Ukraine  
 
Irish Penal Reform Trust, Dublin, Ireland  
 
Itaca Europe, Rome, Italy  
 
Italian League for the fight against AIDS - Center for Human Rights and Public Health (LILA CEDIUS ONLUS), Milan, Italy  
 
JES e.V., Bielefeld and Bremen, Germany  
 
John Mordaunt Trust, London, United Kingdom  
 
Mainline Foundation, Amsterdam, Netherlands  
 
Malopolskie Stowarzyszenie PROBACJA (PROBACJA Association), Krakow, Poland  
 
MARATON, Warsaw, Poland  
 
Methadone Alliance, London, United Kingdom  
 
MODUS VIVENDI, Prévention du sida et réduction des risques pour usagers de drogues, Brussels, Belgium  
 
Monar Krakow Drugs Project, Krakow, Poland  
 
MONAR, Pulawy, Poland  
 
National AIDS Trust, London, United Kingdom  
 
Netherlands Drug Policy Foundation (SDB), Haarlem, Netherlands  
 
NGO TRUST, Skopje, Macedonia  
 
Osservatorio Italiano sull'Azione Globale contro l'AIDS, Rome, Italy  
 
PASSAGE, Skopje, Macedonia  
 
Plymouth Drug and Alcohol Action Team, Plymouth, United Kingdom  
 
Quest for Quality, Amsterdam, Netherlands  
 
REFORM, Drug Policy Interest Group, Essex, United Kingdom  
 
RFSU, The Swedish Association for Sexuality Education, Stockholm, Sweden  
 
Romanian Association against AIDS (ARAS), Bucharest, Romania  
 
Romanian Harm Reduction Network (RHRN), Bucharest, Romania  
 
Russian Harm Reduction Network, Moscow, Russia  
 
SANANIM, Prague, Czech Republic  
 
Sensoa (Flemish Centre for Expertise and Services on Sexual Health and HIV), Antwerp, Belgium  
 
SIDACTION – International Programs, Paris, France  
 
SIDA STUDI, Barcelona, Spain  
 
SignPost Forth Valley, Stirling, Scotland  
 
Social AIDS Committee, Warsaw, Poland  
 
SOMA – Associação Portuguesa Anti-proibicionista, Lisbon, Portugal  
 
Steunpunt Druggebruikers, Antwerp, Belgium  
 
T3E [UK] Ltd., London, United Kingdom  
 
Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Bristol, United Kingdom  
 
Transnational Institute (TNI) Drug and Democracy Programme, Amsterdam, Netherlands  
 
Tver AIDS Center, Tver, Russia  
 
Tver Center of Drugs Addiction Treatment, Tver, Russia  
 
United Kingdom Harm Reduction Alliance Eccles, Kent, United Kingdom  
 
Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) - New Ways, Istanbul, Turkey  
 
World AIDS Campaign, Amsterdam, The Netherlands  
 
Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung – ZFG, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany  
 
Zentrum Suchtmedizin Klinikum Wahrendorff, Sehnde, Germany  
 
 
Latin America  
ACERD—Associação Cearense de Redução de Danos, Fortaleza, Brazil  
 
Argentinean Harm Reduction Association (ARDA), Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
Argentinean Harm Reduction Network (REDARD), Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
Asociación Civil “Convivencia” de Personas Viviendo y Conviviendo con VIH/SIDA, Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
Brazilian Drug Users Network, Recife, Brazil  
 
CASA—Centro de Assessoria à Adolescência, Fortaleza and Florianópolis, Brazil  
 
Center for Studies on Public Security and Citizenship (Centro de Estudos de  
Seurança e Cidadania), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
 
Centro de Convivência “É de Lei”, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Centro de Referência em Redução de Danos, Escola de Saúde Pública, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  
 
Dínamo - Informação Responsável sobre Drogas e Afins, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Fundación para Estudio e Investigación de la Mujer. Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
HUMANAR, Huritaba, Brazil  
 
ICC—Instituto Carioca de Criminologia (Institute of Criminology of Rio de Janeiro), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
 
Intercambios Asociación Civil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
International Women Aids Caucus, Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
LACCASO - Latin American and Caribbean Council of AIDS Service Organizations, Caracas, Venezuela  
 
MMFD—Movimento da Magistratura Fluminense pela Democracia (Movement of State of Rio de Janeiro's Judges for Democracy), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
 
Mujer y Salud en Uruguay (MYSU), Montevideo, Uruguay  
 
NetPsi—Núcleo de Estudos e Temas em Psicologia , São Paulo, Brazil  
 
ONG INTERPARES, Parana Entre Rios, Argentina  
 
Parana Drug Users Network, Curitiba, Brazil  
 
Programa Alter-Acciones, El Abrojo – Instituto de Educación Popular, Montevideo, Uruguay  
 
REDUC, Brazilian Harm Reduction Network, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
RELARD, Latin American Harm Reduction Network, Curitiba, Brazil  
 
 
Middle East/North Africa  
Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran, Iran  
 
The Moroccan Association for the Fight Against AIDS, Marrakesh, Morocco  
 
Persepolis Harm Reduction NGO, Tehran, Iran  
 
Persia+, UNDP GIPA Programme, Tehran, Iran  
 
 
North America  
Access Works! Harm Reduction Services, Minneapolis, MN, USA  
 
Act Up—East Bay, Oakland, CA, USA  
 
Advocates for Recovery Through Medicine, Connecticut Chapter, New London, CT, USA  
 
After Hours Project, Inc., Brooklyn, NY, USA  
 
AIDS Foundation of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA  
 
AIDS Project Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA  
 
AIDS Treatment Data Network, New York, NY, USA  
 
American Academy of HIV Medicine, Washington DC, USA  
 
American Foundation for AIDS Research, Washington DC, USA  
 
ARC International, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  
 
Canadian Harm Reduction Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  
 
Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Montreal, Quebec, Canada  
 
Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE), Takoma Park, MD, USA  
 
Center for Human Rights and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
 
CHAMP (Community HIV/AIDS Mobilization Project), New York, NY, USA  
 
Chicago Recovery Alliance, Chicago, IL, USA  
 
CitiWide Harm Reduction, Bronx, NY, USA  
 
Drug Overdose Prevention & Education Project, San Francisco, CA, USA  
 
DrugSense, Irvine, CA, USA  
 
Exponents, New York, NY, USA  
 
Foundation for Integrative AIDS Research (FIAR), Brooklyn, NY, USA  
 
Gay Men's Health Crisis, New York, NY, USA  
 
Global AIDS Alliance, Washington DC, USA  
 
Harm Reduction Coalition, New York, NY, USA  
 
Harm Reduction Project, Denver and Salt Lake City, UT, USA  
 
Health GAP (Global Access Project), New York, NY, USA  
 
HIV Advocacy Council of Oregon and SW Washington, Portland, OR, USA  
 
HIV Resource Center, Roseburg Risk Reduction, Roseburg, OR, USA  
 
Housing Works, Inc., New York, NY, USA  
 
Human Rights Watch, New York, NY, USA  
 
International Antiprohibitionist League, New York, NY, USA and Rome, Italy  
 
International Center for Advancement of Addiction Treatment, Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute of Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY, USA  
 
International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO), Toronto, Ontario, Canada  
 
International Foundation for Alternative Research in AIDS (IFARA), Portland, OR, USA  
 
International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, New York, NY, USA  
 
International Women's Health Coalition, New York, NY, USA  
 
Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center, New York, NY, USA  
 
Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Public Health and Policy Research, Bronx, NY, USA  
 
NAMA-Norcal, Santa Cruz, CA, USA  
 
National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA), Silver Spring, MD, USA  
 
National Association for Victims of Transfusion-Acquired AIDS, Bethesda, MD, USA  
 
The New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY, USA  
 
Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA  
 
Physicians for Human Rights, Washington, DC, USA  
 
Positive Health Project, Inc., New York, NY, USA  
 
Prevention Point Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA  
 
TAG, Treatment Action Group, New York, NY, USA  
 
Unified Networkers of Drug Users Nationally, Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
 
 
Individual Signatories  
Vittorio Agnoletto, Scientific Mgr of LILA CEDIUS, Member of the European  
Parliament, GUE/NGL Group, Italy  
 
Waheed Ahmad, Advocate High Court, Legal Secretary: World Asian Workers Organisation, Lahore, Pakistan  
 
Joan Anderson, HIV/AIDS community Consultant and volunteer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada  
 
Júlio Assis Simões, Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Guillermo R. Aureano, Ph.D., Chercheur associé, Groupe d'étude et de recherche sur la sécurité internationale (GERSI), Département de science politique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada  
 
Brambillaschi Barbara, L.I.L.A. - Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro l'AIDS-sede di Como, Italy  
 
Diogo Beltran, Oracle Corporation, Latin America Knowledge Developer, São  
Paulo, Brazil  
 
Trude Bennett, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA  
 
Dennis Berg, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA  
 
Marie-Andrée Bertrand, Professor emeritus, University of Montreal, Criminology, Montréal, Quebec, Canada  
 
Suzanne Bessoir, Harm Reduction Specialist, AIDS Service Center NYC, New York, NY, USA  
 
Calum Blair, Harm Reduction worker, SignPost Forth Valley, Stirling, Scotland  
 
Simon Boerboom, Psychiatrist, Amsterdam, Netherlands  
 
Beth M. Bouloukos, Ithaca, New York, NY, USA  
 
Ryan Borgen, Student Global AIDS Campaign, Northeastern University School of Law, Boston, MD, USA  
 
Jill Britton, London, United Kingdom  
 
Damon Brogan, Manager, VIVAIDS, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Scott Burris, James E. Beasley Professor of Law, Temple University Beasley School of Law, Philadelphia, PA, USA  
 
Milena Buschinelli Ferreira, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Benjamin Bynum, Fikelela AIDS Project, Cape Town, South Africa  
 
Vincenzo Caracciolo, Associazione P24 Lila Livorno, Livorno, Italy  
 
Craig Carmichael, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia  
 
Paul Causey, HIV/AIDS Program Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand  
 
Jennifer Chapman, MPH, Project Manager/Research Coordinator, Center for Clinical, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA  
 
George K. Clarke, Volunteer CT Director, CMA, New London, CT, USA  
 
Shelley Cogger, Research Assistant, Post Release Experience of Prisoners in Queensland (PREP-Q), Queensland Alcohol and Drug, Research and Education Centre (QADREC), University of Queensland, Australia  
 
Osvaldo Coggiola, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Franco Corleone, Forum Droghe, Rome, Italy  
 
Melissa Dent, Community Development Worker, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Tamara Desiatov, Koondoola, Western Australia  
 
Kate Dickie, Annah Pickering, Managers, Auckland Branch of the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective, Auckland, New Zealand  
 
Dr. Gyaw Htet Doe, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Taunggyi Drug Treatment Hospital, Taunggyi, Myanmar  
 
Ms J Dowling, Auburn, NSW, Australia  
 
Ernest Drucker PhD, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA  
 
Andy Dudley, Addaction, Derby, United Kingdom  
 
Carolina Pecheny Durozier, Paris, France  
 
Brian R. Edlin, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine and Public Health, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA  
 
Maria Cristina de Figueiredo Guimarães, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
 
Maria Fotopoulou, Ph.D. student, Imperial College, University of London, London, United Kingdom  
 
Mayada Youssef Fox, staff member, HIV/AIDS Department, WHO HQ, Geneva, Switzerland  
 
Sandra Fox, former staff, Harm Reduction sector, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Jonathan Freedlander, Baltimore, MD, USA  
 
Liliana Gherman, MD, Program Director, Public Health Program, Soros Foundation, Chisinau, Moldova  
 
Fernanda Gonçalves Moreira, M.D., Master in Psychiatry, PROAD – Departamento de Psiquiatria – EPM / UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Cees Goos, honorary consultant Anton Proksch Institut, former WHO staff, Vienna, Austria  
 
Chris W. Green, Jakarta, Indonesia  
 
Heath Greville (individual support), Department of Health, Perth, Western Australia  
 
Patrick Griffiths, PhD candidate, Contemporary Globalisation and HIV/AIDS in Vietnam, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Revd Dr Ian T Guy, General Practitioner, Fulcrum Medical Practice, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom  
 
Bianca L. Guzman, Ph.D., CHOICES Director of Research, La Puente, CA, USA  
 
Fiona Hale, International Network Manager, ICW, London, United Kingdom  
 
Jen Hall, Information and Referral (Duty) Worker, Inner South Community Health Service, Prahran, Australia  
 
Helena Hansen, MD-Ph.D. Candidate, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA  
 
Paul Hardacre, Training Officer, Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN), Chiang Mai, Thailand  
 
Frank Harding, Ayer's Cliff, Quebec, Canada  
 
Andy Hart, Vendafit Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia  
 
Paul J. von Hartmann, Project P.E.A.C.E., Planet Ecology Advancing Conscious Economics, Santa Rosa, CA, USA  
 
Robert Heimer, Ph. D., Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS Yale University School of, New Haven, CT, USA  
 
Beatriz Acevedo Holguin, Researcher on International Drug Policy, Hull, United Kingdom  
 
Lital Hollander, Research Manager, ESMAN Medical Consulting, Milano, Italy  
 
Danny Holness, Peer Education Officer, RaveSafe, Victoria, Australia  
 
Daniel E. Hood, Ph.D., Department of Criminal Justice/Security Systems, State University of New York at Farmingdale, Farmingdale, New York, NY, USA  
 
Annabelle Horton, UN Office of Drugs and Crime, Bangkok, Thailand.  
 
Neil Hunt, Senior Research Associate, University of Kent; Honorary Research  
Fellow, Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College,  
London; Director, UK Harm Reduction Alliance Eccles, Kent, United Kingdom  
 
Elena Jeffreys, Scarlet Alliance, Australias Sex Worker Association, Canberra Act, Australia  
 
McKinzie McClay Jernberg, Minneapolis, MN, USA  
 
Debbie Johnson, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom  
 
Maria Lucia Karam, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
 
P. R. W. Kendall, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC, Provincial Health Officer, Ministry of Health Services, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada  
 
Joseph Kim, Young Drug Users Peer Education Officer, VIVAIDS (Victorian Drug User  
Organisation), Melbourne, Australia  
 
Dr Stuart A. Kinner, Lecturer, Queensland Alcohol and Drug, Research and Education Centre (QADREC), Queensland, Australia  
 
Debbie Kocziban, Addaction, Plymouth Devon, United Kingdom  
 
Nicky Kupfer, Alcohol Tobacco and other drugs service, Sydney, Australia  
 
Heather La Faye LPN, Medicine cures sickness,all the world is medicine, what is the self?, Recovery Resource Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA  
 
Susana Lambrechts, Esteban Echeverría, Argentina  
 
Deb Lapthorne, Director of Public Health, Plymouth Primary Care Trust/ Plymouth City Council, Plymouth, United Kingdom  
 
Fiona Leibrick, Lecturer: Health Sciences (Alcohol & Other Drug Studies) / Registered Psychologist, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia  
 
Prof. Dr. José Salvador Lepera, Disciplinas de Toxicologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Araraquara—UNESP, Araraquara, Brazil  
 
Sarah Lippek, AIDS Center of Queens County, Long Island City, NY, USA  
 
Deirdre Love, Senior Health Promotion Specialist HIV Positive People, Health First, London, United Kingdom  
 
Wendy Loxley, Associate Professor, National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, West Australia  
 
Devon MacFarlane, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada  
 
Catherine Mackenzie, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada  
 
Jan Chrostek Maj MD, Rydygier's Hospital, Krakow, Poland  
 
Paolo La Marca, Project manager (Harm reduction & training), LILA CEDIUS (Italian league fight against AIDS), Milano, Italy  
 
David Martin, Program Medical Officer, Health Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada  
 
Phyra M. McCandless, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
 
Rachel McLean, MPH Candidate, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
 
Belinda McNair, Senior Project Officer-City Drug Safety Plan, City of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia  
 
Cristina Menoyo, Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Madrid. España  
 
Maria Luisa Milesi, Esteban Echeverría, Argentina  
 
Dr Peter Miller, Senior Clinical Research Worker. National Addiction Centre (Maudsley Hospital/Institute of Psychiatry). King's College London, London, United Kingdom  
 
PhDr. Michal Miovsky, Ph.D., Institute of psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic  
 
Christina Moreira da Costa, Sociedade Viva Cazuza, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil  
 
Andrew Moss Ph.D, Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA  
 
Marjorie "Mo" Mowlam, Kent, United Kingdom  
 
Sam Muller, Regional Field Coordinator, Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project, "An Australian Government Initiative", Ha Noi, Viet Nam  
 
Roshan das Nair, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, England  
 
Dr. Russell Newcombe, Senior Lecturer in Drug Use & Addiction, School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moore's University, Liverpool, England  
 
Dr Michael O'Dwyer, Senior Health Adviser, DFID South East Asia, Bangkok, Thailand.  
 
Patrick O'Gorman, Consultant with Asian Harm Reduction Network and European Expert with UNDP led BUMAD and SCAD programmes, Nottingham, United Kingdom  
 
James M. Oleske, MD, MPH, François-Xavier Bagnoud Professor of Pediatrics, Director, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, Untied States  
 
Hilgunn Olsen, SIRUS Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway  
 
Kim Pate, Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies (CAEFS), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  
 
Mario Pecheny, Instituto Gino Germani, Universidad de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina  
 
Jia Ping, Beijing Aizhixing institute of health education, China  
 
Dr.Hayley Pinto, Norfolk and Waveny Mental Health, Partnership NHS Trust, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom  
 
Robert Power PhD, Reader in Health & Social Sciences Research, Centre for Sexual Health & HIV Research, Department of Primary Care & Population Sciences, Royal Free & University College Medical School, Mortimer Market, London, United Kingdom  
 
Dianne Proctor, Reproductive Health Activist, (Previously CEO of AHRA, now retired), Canberra, Australia  
 
Kenn Quayle, i2i Peer Support, Gibsons, British Columbia, Canada  
 
Pedro Ratis e Silva, DINAMO, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Melissa Raven, Lecturer, Coordinator, Drugs and Public Health, Department of Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Australia  
 
Emran M. Razzaghi, M.D., M.P.H., Ass Professor of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2004-5 World Fellow, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA  
 
Thomas Timon Reichl, Bonn, Germany  
 
Josiah D. Rich, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor of Medicine and Community Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA  
 
Jane Richman, Substance Misuse Worker, United Kingdom  
 
Kay Roberts, Glasgow, United Kingdom  
 
Xavier Majó Roca, Programme on Drug Abuse, Department of Health. Autonomous, Government of Catalonia, Barcelona, Catalonia-Spain  
 
Allan Rosenfield, MD, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA  
 
Rainer Rotthoff, Pelangi Communitry Foundation, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  
 
Cliff Seaward, drug worker, United Kingdom  
 
Gerard M. Schippers, Ph.D., Professor of Addictive Behaviors and Treatment Evaluation, Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands  
 
Susan G. Sherman, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
 
Ram Singh Gurung, an Ex-drug user, Advocacy coordinator, Naya Goreto, Kathmandu Nepal  
 
Marcelo Sodelli, Pontifícia Unbiversidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil  
 
Alfred Sommer, Dean and Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA  
 
Dr Mónica Suárez Cardona, Madrid, Spain  
 
Brent Taylor, UNDUN, Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
 
Dr. Gerald Thomas, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  
 
Juan Gabriel Tokatlian, Director Political Science and International Relations, Universidad de San Andres, Argentina  
 
Bruce G. Trigg, MD, Medical Director, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program, Department of Health, NM, USA  
 
Pervaiz Tufail, Program Manager, AMAL Human Development Network, Islamabad, Pakistan  
 
Azmi bin Uda, "Positive Muslim", Marang,Kuantan and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  
 
Jamie Uhrig, Consultant in HIV Prevention and Care, Chiang Mai, Thailand  
 
Kenneth A. Vail, M.P.H, M.A., Tenderloin AIDS Resource Center, San Francisco, CA, USA  
 
Félix Vanderstricht, Aquadev NGO, Tools & Strategy Dpt., Brussels, Belgium  
 
Camila Vega, Consultant, Regional Cooperative Mechanism to Monitor and Execute the ACCORD Plan of Action, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand  
 
Prof. Edna Paciência Vietta, Clínica Psicológica, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil  
 
Miguel García Villanueva, Head of the Medical Services of the Prison of Pamplona, Spain  
 
David Vlahov, Ph.D., New York, NY, USA  
 
Jennifer Whittall, RhythmicPrinting, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada  
 
Karen Willey, Fulcrum Medical Practice, Middlesbrough, England  
 
Dr. Alex Wodak, Director, Alcohol and Drug Service, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia  
 
Liron B. Wolff, LMSW, New York, NY, USA  
 
Yang Yang, MPH, Yale University of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA  
 
Yuanyin, The Central University for Nationalities, China  
 
Tomas Zabransky, M.D., Ph.D., Institute for Epidemiology, Public Health and Hygiene, Palacky University Olomouc, Czech Republic