Survey of Cluster Munitions Produced and Stockpiled
Briefing Paper Prepared for the ICRC Experts Meeting on Cluster Munitions
This presentation is an introduction to the wide variety of cluster munitions currently available. The functional characteristics of these munitions as well as estimates of the numbers in current stockpiles are included in the presentation.
1 The following 65 countries possess 122mm rockets (26 of these countries are not included in this briefing as stockpiling cluster munitions): Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Congo, DR Congo, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia FYR, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar (Burma), Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
2 In addition, unconfirmed reports cite use of cluster munitions in Angola, Colombia, Kashmir, Nagorno-Karabakh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and Yemen.
3 Systems retired from US inventory include 105mm M-444 ICM, 155mm M-449, M449A1 DPICM, 8-Inch M404 ICM and M509A1 DPICM projectiles. US Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Study, April 1996, p. 7.
4 Department of the Army, Procurement Programs, Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, Fiscal Year 2008/2009 Budget Estimates, Ammunition Procurement, Army, February 2007, p. 704.
5 US Defense Security Assistance Agency, Department of Defense, Cluster Bomb Exports under FMS, FY1970-FY1995, November 15, 1995, obtained by Human Rights Watch in a Freedom of Information Act request, November 28, 1995.
7 BL-755 cluster bombs are reported to be stockpiled by Belgium, Eritrea, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Switzerland, Thailand, and the UAE. Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, and most recently the UK have subsequently disposed of or are in the process of disposing of some or all the weapons.
8 US Defense Intelligence Agency, Improved Conventional Munitions and Selected Controlled-Fragmentation Munitions (Current and Projected) DST-1160S-020-90, June 8, 1990, partially declassified and made available under a Freedom of Information Act request.
9 Cluster munitions of Soviet origin are reported to be in the stockpiles of Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cuba, Egypt, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Libya, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen.
10 Impact and time delay bomblets have been used in Afghanistan, Albania, Cambodia, Chad, Chechnya, Croatia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Iraq, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tajikistan, Western Sahara, former Yugoslavia (including Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo), and Vietnam.
11 Countries that produce and stockpile impact and time delay bomblets include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, UK, and US. Countries that stockpile impact and time delay bomblets include Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Libya, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UAE, Uzbekistan, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.
12 Janes Air Launched Weapons, Robert Hewson, ed. (Surrey: UK: Janes Information Group, 2004), p. 469.
13 Defence Logistics Organization (DLO) Secretariat, DLO Andover, Response to Landmine Action question, Reference 06-02-2006-145827-009, March 27, 2006.
14 Sources for stockpile figures presented: For US cluster munition stockpiles, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics), Department of Defense, Report to Congress: Cluster Munitions, October 2004; for UK stockpiles of cluster munitions, House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for Oct 10, 2006,Column 656W,Robert Hewson, Cluster weapons ban leaves gap in UK inventory, Janes Air-Launched Weapons, April 10, 2007; for German cluster munition stockpiles, Actiongrouplandmine.de, Cluster Bombs and Cluster Munitions: A Danger to Life, December 2005, pp. 8-9; For Dutch cluster munition stockpiles, Joris Janssen, Dutch Plan to Update Cluster Weapons, Janes Defence Weekly, October 19, 2005; for recipients of US cluster munition exports, US Defense Security Assistance Agency, Department of Defense, Cluster Bomb Exports under FMS, FY1970-FY1995, November 15, 1995, obtained by Human Rights Watch in a Freedom of Information Act request, November 28, 1995 and data from US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense, Notifications to Congress of Pending U.S. Arms Transfers, Foreign Military Sales, Direct Commercial Sales, and Excess Defense Articles databases, http://www.dsca.osd.mil/ (accessed November 28, 2006).
15 DPICM submunitions have been used in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Western Sahara.
16 DPICM are produced and stockpiled by Argentina, Brazil, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Iraq, Italy, Singapore, South Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, and US. States that stockpile DPICM submunitions include Bahrain, Croatia, France, Germany, Iran, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Morocco, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, and Sudan.
17 China, Egypt, Italy, Poland, Russia, and Slovakia produce warheads for 122mm rockets.
18 Israel Military Industries, Artillery Ammunition Directorate, Australian Senate Standing Committee Inquiry into Cluster Munitions (Prohibition Bill), Letter ART-1035.07, February 14, 2007.
19 Office of the US Army Product Manager, Precision Fires Rocket and Missile Systems, Briefing on Precision Guided Missiles and Rockets; Self Destruct Fuze Efforts, February 2007, Slide 7.
20 States that produce and stockpile DPICM with self-destruct mechanisms include Argentina, France, Germany, India, Israel, South Korea, Poland, Romania, Singapore, South Africa, Switzerland, UK, and US. States that stockpile DPICM with self-destruct mechanisms include Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Japan, and Norway.
21 Presentation to the 48th Annual Fuze Conference by Mike Hiebel, Alliant TechSystems, and Ilan Glickman, Israel Military Industries, Self-Destruct Fuze for M864 Projectiles and MLRS Rockets, Charlotte, North Carolina, April 27-28, 2004, Slide 9, http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2004fuze/hiebel.pdf (accessed November 28, 2006).
22 In Iraq in 2003, the United States used air-dropped CBU-105 Sensor Fuzed Weapons and surface-launched M898 Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM) 155mm artillery projectiles for the first time.
23 ATK/GIWS SMArt 155 Sensor Fuzed Munition Succeeds in UAE Desert Tests, Alliant TechSystems press release, January 10, 2005, http://atk.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases&item=471 (accessed June 7, 2006).