Eritrea’s government under President Isaias Afewerki continues to be responsible for repeated serious rights violations. Thousands of Eritreans flee the country monthly to avoid “national service,” conscription that lasts indefinitely. Eritreans are subject to arbitrary arrest and harsh treatment in detention; no means exist to challenge detention or other abuses. Eritrea has had no national elections, no legislature, independent press, or independent civil society organizations since 2001. Religious freedom is severely curtailed. The 2018 peace agreement with long-standing enemy Ethiopia provided some hope that restrictions on national service would be lifted, but so far there has been little change.