publications

Discounting Rights

Wal-Mart's Violation of US Workers’ Right to Freedom of Association

Related Material

Download Executive Summary PDF
(151 kb, 12 pages)

Download PDF file of this report
(1.1 Mb, 214 pages)
Download PDF of report with cover
(1.6 Mb, 216 pages)

Download Executive Summary PDF
in Spanish (162 kb, 16 pages)

Download Executive Summary PDF
in French (158 kb, 16 pages)

Purchase a printed version of this report

More on Human Rights Watch's work on Labor and Human Rights

More on Human Rights Watch's work on the United States

Acknowledgments

I. Summary

How Wal-Mart Wards Off and Derails Union Organizing

II. Methodology

III. Findings and Recommendations

Weak US Labor Laws and Wal-Mart’s Strategy to Defeat Union Organizing

Inadequate US Labor Law Enforcement

Lack of Transparency on Wages and Benefits

IV. Background

Wal-Mart: The Company

Workers’ Concerns about Labor Conditions at Wal-Mart

V. Freedom of Association Under International and US Law

Freedom of Association Under International Law

Freedom of Association Under US Labor Law: An Overview

VI. Freedom of Association at Wal-Mart: Anti-Union Tactics Comporting with US Law

The Manager’s Toolbox

The “Grass Roots” Process

The Open Door Policy

Highlighting Possible Permanent Replacement

Worker Training

Management Training

The Union Hotline

The “Remedy System”

The Labor Relations Team

Dividing the Store

VII. Case Study I: Defeating Union Organizing Through Tactics Comporting with US Law

Greeley, Colorado, Store Number 5051

VIII. Freedom of Association at Wal-Mart: Anti-Union Tactics Running Afoul of US Law

Discriminatory Hiring, Firing, Disciplining, and Policy Application

Union Activity Surveillance

“Unit Packing” and Worker Transfers to Dilute Union Support

Addressing Worker Concerns to Undermine Union Activity

Threatening Benefit Loss if Workers Organize

Interrogating Workers about Union Activity

Illegal No-Talking Rules

Discriminatory Application of Solicitation Rules

Illegal No-Solicitation Rules

Confiscating Union Literature

Conclusion

IX. When Wal-Mart’s Strategy to Defeat Union Organizing Fails

Illegal Refusal to Bargain: Jacksonville, Texas

Illegal Store Closure: Jonquiere, Quebec, Canada

X. Case Studies II: Defeating Union Organizing Through Tactics Comporting with and Running Afoul of US Law

Kingman, Arizona, Store Number 2051

New Castle, Pennsylvania, Store Number 2287

Aiken, South Carolina, Store Number 514

Loveland, Colorado, Store Number 953

XI. Conclusion

Appendix I: Costs of Wal-Mart’s Healthcare Plans

Appendix II: Definitions and Illustrations of Key Health Insurance Terms

Appendix III: Letter from Wal-Mart to Human Rights Watch


May 2007   Volume 19, No. 2(G)