IX. NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT RESPONSE
We have a lot of sexual violence in schools; we don't have a strategy. People are working on it, but not in a coordinated way.
Gender Focal Person, Western Cape Education Department
The incidence of sexual violence and harassment in schools has remained largely unchronicled in South Africa. Although there are no reliable statistics on the extent of sexual violence experienced by girls in South African schools, the government has recognized the problem as a serious one. A Gender Equity Task Team (GETT), commissioned in 1996 by the Department of Education to analyze the education system from a gender perspective, identified the problem of sexual violence in schools as severe and systemic, and raised concerns about the perceived levels of violence against South African schoolgirls.
In its 1997 report, Gender Equity in Education, the GETT observed, "[w]hat is not necessarily fully acknowledged is the extent of rape in schools, and on the way to and from schools."269 The GETT report noted that while violence and harassment had been documented in the behavior of teachers, and students towards other students, there was not sufficient data about the prevalence of violence in schools or who the perpetrators were. South African children's rights activists assert that sexual abuse in schools is widespread. Childline, a nongovernmental organization assisting victims of child abuse, has estimated that one in three South African girls under the age of sixteen will be sexually abused.270 Often the abuse will occur at school.
The South African government has acknowledged unacceptably high levels of sexual violence and harassment in its schools and has expressed a commitment at the highest policy making levels to addressing violence in schools and against girls at school.271 There are national and provincial initiatives on various aspects of school violence under development or being implemented. Curriculum components on gender equity are being devised. Although the national Department of Education has indicated a desire to develop a comprehensive policy on sexual violence and harassment in schools,272 there is as yet no national policy and the implementation and enforcement of existing protections has not been rigorous. In addition, the necessary coordination between the education and justice systems required to address the problem effectively constantly falters.
The Gender Equity Task Team called on the national Department of Education to develop a schools policy and standard procedure for intervention in child abuse, and to establish expectations that schools provide easily accessible information on and referral to services and resources that support the needs of children. The Task Team also urged enactment of legislation allocating clear responsibility to all educational managers for ensuring a discrimination- and violence-free environment.
The Task Team also urged the national and provincial education departments to "develop guidelines and accountability frameworks for addressing violence....as an integral part of the school quality assurance process." The team suggested that the national and provincial departments work to "position issues pertaining to the safety and security of girls in legal frameworks in order to locate responsibility to the perpetrators of violence."273
On the provincial level, the team recommended that professional development and teaching material be developed for school governing boards and teachers on the nature of sex-based and ethnic violence. It suggested that awareness programs for parents and communities on gender violence should be promoted in conjunction with these other efforts.
While all of the Task Team recommendations have not been fully integrated into policies across the education system, the national Department of Education has designed general school violence initiatives that should benefit all children. Certain provincial education departments in cooperation with nongovernmental organizations are engaged in school-based interventions to assist children to cope with and combat school violence. The Western Cape department, for example, has drafted a specific gender violence policy that holds promise as a model for improving the system's response to violence against girls. These initiatives, described briefly below, will require cooperation and coordination among all stakeholders in the education system for their effective implementation.274 In many cases it is too early to evaluate the efficacy of these initiatives, but early efforts are encouraging. A greater expansion of the programs described below as well as enforcement of existing laws would enhance system-wide efforts to prevent, investigate, and punish sexual violence in schools.
In 2000, the South African parliament amended the 1998 Employment of Educators Act to expand the scope of actions considered "serious misconduct" and to include a disciplinary code and procedure for employers to use when it is alleged that a teacher has committed misconduct.275 Now committing an act of sexual assault on a student or having a sexual relationship with a student constitutes serious misconduct that warrants dismissal if an educator is found guilty of the offense. The act details the sanctions that may be imposed and describes how an employer should conduct disciplinary hearings in cases of misconduct.276
The 1996 South African Schools Act provides for the suspension of pupils as a "correction measure," or their expulsion for "serious misconduct" after a fair hearing. It is left to each provincial MEC responsible for education to "determine by notice" the behavior which may constitute serious misconduct and the disciplinary procedure to be followed.277
Guidelines on HIV/AIDS
The education department in South Africa also recently recognized the problem of teachers sexually abusing female students in its warning against sexual misconduct in new school guidelines on HIV/AIDS issues.278 The guidelines note the prevalence of the problem and call on teachers to refrain from sex with students because of the dangers of HIV transmission and because "having sex with learners betrays the trust of the community."279 The HIV/AIDS guidelines explain that sexual relations between teachers and students are illegal:
*Educators must not have sexual relations with learners. It is against the law, even if the learner consents. Such action transgresses the code of conduct for educators, who are in a position of trust.
*Strict disciplinary action will be taken against any educator who has sex with a learner.
*Sex that is demanded by an educator without consent is rape, which is a serious crime, and the educator will be charged. If an educator has sex with a girl or boy who is under 16 years, he or she will be charged with statutory rape and may face a penalty of life imprisonment.
*If you are aware of a colleague who is having sexual relations with a learner you must report them to the principal or higher educational authorities, and if the boy or girl is under 16, to the police. If you do not do so you may be charged with being an accessory to rape.280
The guidelines also offer educators basic facts about HIV/AIDS and key messages about preventing HIV infection. Educators are urged to teach children about HIV/AIDS. Further, educators are instructed on how to prevent disease transmission in schools, how to manage accidents and injuries, and how to reduce the risk of transmitting illness to people with HIV/AIDS. The guidelines advise educators to build an enabling environment and culture of nondiscrimination for those students and teachers living with HIV/AIDS. The guidelines encourage schools to develop their own policies on HIV/AIDS in order to give effect to these national guidelines.
National Initiatives on School Violence
In July 1999, Education Minister Asmal issued a call to action and statement of priorities for the revitalization of South Africa's education system. His pronouncement presented a vision of educational transformation, and prioritized areas of the education system requiring urgent attention. The minister emphasized the importance of turning schools into centers of community life by combating violence in schools.281 The department has also identified upgrading the qualifications of the country's teachers as a major priority to focus primarily on farm and rural schools. The department has developed a plan for interim teacher qualifications and a national professional diploma in education registered with the South African Qualifications Authority.282
In 1999, the department also launched "Tirisano" (working together), a nine-point plan of action to be implemented over five years with the broad aim of repairing the South African school system. Tirisano has a school safety component aimed at ensuring that all schools are free from crime, violence, and sexual harassment.283 The department is now in the process of collaborating with the Secretariat for Safety and Security and the National Youth Commission to develop a Joint Framework Document on strategies to address youth violence in schools as a part of Tirisano.284 The framework document outlines a multi-departmental intervention strategy to address youth violence within certain targeted schools. The proposed intervention strategies are designed to mobilize and integrate multiple levels and sectors of government and civil society. The document marks the culmination of the first phase of development. The violence reduction strategy calls on all stakeholders to address the social system underlying youth violence, to eliminate spaces for violence, and to facilitate learning.
Since 1997, when it launched the Campaign for a Culture of Learning, Teaching and Service (COLTS), the government has worked to create school-based programs to aid in transforming South African schools from sites of struggle to places of "learning, teaching and service."285 The COLTS "No Crime in Schools" Component aims to counter the undermining effects of hostile school environments to learning. This component is part of the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS), an interdepartmental strategy created in May 1995, as part of the Government of National Unity's recognition of high levels of crime in society. NCPS has three prongs in its implementation strategy involving schools: school safety, violence prevention, and victim empowerment through the "Life Skills" curriculum.
More recently, the department has released an interactive manual for teachers on alternatives to corporal punishment. The document suggests ways in which teachers can be proactive and set up the learning environment to limit discipline problems and suggests strategies to use.286 Human Rights Watch is encouraged by the government's commitment to end corporal punishment as well as its efforts to address the problem through prohibiting the practice, educating educators on alternatives to violence, and requesting that charges be laid against abusive teachers. Human Rights Watch is hopeful that the department will confront sexual violence in schools with similar urgency.
National Initiatives on Gender Equity
The National Department of Education has also established a Directorate for Gender Equity, based on the 1997 recommendations of the Gender Equity Task Team, in order to mainstream gender equity in all aspects of the education system and to work closely with provincial departments. Recently, provincial gender equity units were created. Each province has now identified a "gender focal person" to head these units, though no clear mandate has been given to them beyond a responsibility to study and advise on all aspects of gender equity in education.287 Human Rights Watch believes gender violence in schools should be a high priority of the provincial directorates.
Human Rights Watch interviewed gender focal persons leading the gender equity units from four of the country's nine provinces and learned that, unfortunately, the gender focal persons were not a high priority of provincial directorates. Gender focal persons told us that their posts were not at the director or even deputy director level within their respective provincial departments of education.288 Gender focal persons told us that they were rarely, if ever, included in important meetings of the department where policies are being set and decisions made-which they attributed to occupying rather low level posts within provincial education departments. For instance, gender focal persons told us that the national Department of Education had as yet failed to develop a policy or comprehensive strategy to address gender violence. Nor had the department consulted them about designing procedural guidelines for schools on how to address sexual violence and harassment. All believed that gender issues were sufficiently important and the problems sufficiently urgent to merit their input and consultation in policy making.
The Gender Equity Task Team called for each provincial department of education to have a gender equity unit and a gender director. Gender equity focal persons told us that they did not have a unit, but rather that one person without staff or resources usually takes on additional responsibilities for addressing all gender equity problems in schools for the provincial education administration. One gender focal person told Human Rights Watch that her post was merely an "add on" on top of her many other work responsibilities so that in practice she could devote little time to sexual violence problems in the schools of her province.
Despite these challenges, gender focal persons have been active in efforts to develop mechanisms for schools to address gender violence.289 In November 1999, under the auspices of the Canada-South Africa Education Management Program (CSAEMP), a joint initiative of the Canadian International Development Agency, the national Department of Education, and McGill University (Montreal), a team of gender focal persons began working to develop an education module for school management on sex-based and gender-based violence. The module outlines a series of workshops on the issues for gender and sexual violence, sexual harassment, child abuse, and strategies for dealing with student disclosures. The module also explains the need for schools to develop sexual harassment policies as a way to protect against legal actions and create a positive school environment.290 It is of urgent importance that this forthcoming school-based educational module be widely disseminated to schools. Human Rights Watch expects that such instructional materials can be valuable tools for increasing awareness about the existence and harm of sexual violence and harassment in schools and encourages support for such initiatives at every level within the education system.
Human Rights Watch urges the education system to support gender focal persons and gender equity units in their efforts to address sexual violence in schools. Human Rights Watch encourages the education system to provide resources and support to gender focal persons and to consider elevating the status of gender equity units within the administrative structure of education in order to better facilitate their input into education policy.
The Western Cape Education Department has drafted a procedure to deal with complaints of sexual harassment and child abuse by students, educators, and school employees that is currently under review.291 The primary objective of the policy is to provide a procedure whereby a student can lodge a complaint if he or she has been sexually harassed or abused by another student, an educator, or another department employee. The draft provides for the creation of an environment where it is easy for a student to report misconduct by ensuring confidentiality. The department expects that the new procedures will soon enable administrators to deal swiftly and adequately with sexual misconduct in area schools.292 The draft also contemplates provision of support systems for students who are victims of abuse by setting up a referral system to other service providers. Potential sanctions for offenders are not outlined in the draft policy.293
Initiatives of Professional Associations
The South African Council for Educators has distributed a framework of professional ethics for teachers calling upon educators to refrain from any form of sexual relationship with students or sexual harassment, physical or otherwise.294 The council, mandated by the South African Council of Educators Act 31 of 2000, is an educators' professional licensing and disciplinary body with which the government now requires all South African teachers to register.
The council recently announced that it intends to launch a national investigation into the extent of sexual harassment and abuse of pupils by teachers.295 According to the council, the investigation was prompted by problems encountered with victims and witnesses withdrawing from sexual abuse cases against teachers. Human Rights Watch welcomes the council's investigation and hopes any findings will be used to contribute to the development of a comprehensive strategy to end sexual violence and harassment in schools. Human Rights Watch also hopes that findings in this report and others will assist the National Department of Education to be more effective in its own efforts to address the problem of sexual violence and harassment in schools.
Nongovernmental Partnership Projects
Education departments have accepted offers of assistance from NGO partners positively and with great benefit to children. A small but exciting school violence initiative, the Crime Reduction in Schools Project (CRISP), is underway in a few schools in KwaZulu-Natal. CRISP, based in the Office of Community Out Service Learning at the University of Natal, Durban, is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary intervention and research program aimed at crime prevention in schools. Supported primarily by the South African Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology's Innovation Fund, the CRISP program is a pilot project in six Durban area schools, which has as its focus the development of a holistic model for crime prevention.296
Through CRISP, university students and community partners are working together to provide a range of programs in schools including: group and individual counseling services to help students, teachers, and parents; diversity training to increase understanding and tolerance of racial and gender differences; environment management to assess the learning environment and school infrastructure and review its impact on students; and policy implementation and evaluation. Girls attending schools participating in CRISP that we interviewed spoke highly of the individual counselors assigned to their schools and appreciated the assistance. School-based counseling was important for many girls who did not have resources or transportation to seek assistance elsewhere. Also in KwaZulu-Natal, the Independent Projects Trust investigated ten Durban schools to identify the sources and conditions promoting school violence to identify sources and conditions promoting violence in area schools and possible ways to address the problem.297
In Gauteng, the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation has been working with the Soweto Safe Schools project since 1994 to help students and teachers in Soweto to cope with the aftermath of years of political violence. Educators are being trained to deal with trauma in forty area schools. Teacher committees in these schools have helped to direct the project and increasing emphasis has been given to the issues of HIV/AIDS and sexual harassment.298
The Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, an independent trust formed by South Africa's first democratically elected president, is active in forming partnerships among organizations working directly with children, and has sponsored the development of a guide on the effective management of sexual abuse. The manual has been designed to assist educators in handling situations where they either suspect that a student has been sexually abused or when the student discloses abuse. The manual proposes elements that a school policy regarding child abuse should contain and sets out a referral procedure. Some teachers are now being trained on sexual abuse. Distributed primarily in Gauteng, many area teachers are nevertheless not aware of the existence of the manual. Again, greater dissemination of this important information is essential.
Another nongovernmental organization, the South African chapter of the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE), in collaboration with the Western Cape and Gauteng Departments of Education, in 1998 assessed the work being done on sexual harassment and discussed ideas for an action project on sexual harassment in secondary schools. FAWE identified many of the problems associated with sexual harassment in South African schools and further work is needed to follow up.
These initiatives, while in early stages, are the start of collaboration among provincial departments of education and nongovernmental organizations to end gender violence in schools. Although there are a growing number of initiatives, there is, to date, no coordinated strategy to address the problem of sexual violence in South African schools in a systemic fashion.
With proper implementation and expansion across the country, the efforts described above should, taken together, yield improved safety conditions for South African children. However, government efforts to prevent, punish, and remedy sexual violence against schoolgirls must be further strengthened. The South African government faces immense and complex challenges in addressing the legacy of apartheid in many aspects of government, yet the following initiatives could and should be implemented without excessive cost.
· Identification and Tracking of Abusive Teachers
Currently there is no legislation that prohibits provincial departments from hiring staff who have been convicted on criminal charges of sex crimes. There is also no requirement that schools gather and pass on information about teachers who are fired or transferred as a result of their sexual abuse or harassment of students. Schools do not have easy access to the names and identities of individuals who pose a risk to children. Therefore, it is difficult for schools to screen out employment applicants who may pose a danger to children. The problem of sexual violence against girls by teachers is sufficiently serious that schools should be required to pass on such information about individuals who present a danger to children.
Efforts to improve the school system's response to sexual violence would be greatly enhanced by reliable data detailing the nature and degree of such violence in schools. Presently, there is no quantitative information official or unofficial figures documenting the full scope of the problem. As the school system has no data collection procedure concerning crimes of sexual violence at school, crafting interventions to prevent and remedy abuse is more difficult.
· Reporting Mechanisms
Problems in reporting may be alleviated by establishing mechanisms that allow children to report abuse safe from hostility and humiliation. Students do not have secure places to lodge complaints of sexual violence to school authorities. At present, children typically approach a trusted teacher and disclose abuse. The allegation may or may not be acted upon. Independent investigations of abuse allegations in schools would serve to protect the confidentiality of children as well as the due process rights of the alleged abuser. As the situation stands, investigations are not uniform, and even within the same school, similar complaints are treated differently by school authorities.
The education and justice systems do little to hold the schools accountable for their failure to alert relevant authorities about abuse or credible allegations that abuse was perpetrated by members of the school community. Despite laws that require educators to disclose abuse, Human Rights Watch was not able to find a single case of a school or teacher having faced the criminal sanctions called for by South African law for either failing to alert relevant authorities to or for concealing sexual abuse within the school community. These laws should be publicized and enforced.
· Protection for Complainants
The education system does little to redress the harms schoolgirls subjected to sexual violence suffer. There is little protection for a child complainant's privacy. There is often no support structure designed to assist victims of sexual violence. No policies are in place providing guidance to schools as to what alternative schooling should be given to girls who fear attending courses with their abusers are in place. The school system has no mechanism to provide for the education of girls who leave their schools out of fear of sexual violence or after experiencing sexual abuse.
Although sexual violence and abuse happens at school, the services and responses contemplated by many of the draft policies are geared towards abuse by strangers and do not address girls' needs for justice and safety at school. In the design of many of the violence reduction initiatives, the focus has been on violence in black and township schools, but violence is by no means unique to them. Violence such as corporal punishment, assaults, bullying, rape, and sexual and emotional abuse among students and between teachers is widespread and exists in some exclusive schools. We found girls from all levels of society and among all ethnic groups that had been affected by various forms of sexual violence and harassment at school. A system-wide response is urgently needed.
· Coordination and Communication of Policies
Currently, policy coordination is lacking and communication gaps are common between the national and provincial education departments and schools. For instance, the minister of education's guidelines on HIV/AIDS for the school system have been met with resistance at the local level in some areas. Individual schools fail to implement policies, while relevant policies have yet to be implemented consistently across government departments. One provincial education department official expressed her concern over the breakdown in control over schools as follows:
As much as we develop policy, nothing will happen if schools aren't held accountable. Individual school principals must be held accountable. By the time a policy gets to the school nobody is accountable. We need them to access information and policies meant to deal with school problems and we must be able to hold schools accountable for certain things that happen at school.299
269 Wolpe, Gender Equity in Education, p. 94.
270 Human Rights Watch interview with Lynn Cawood, director of Childline-Gauteng, Johannesburg, March 14, 2000.
271 See Charlene Smith, "Asmal: School Rape a National Crisis," Mail and Guardian, October 15, 1999, quoting Minister of Education Kader Asmal as stating: "Sexual violence in schools must be rooted out and I will take a personal interest in this happening."
272 Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Bheki Khumalo, liaison to the Minister of Education, December 6, 2000.
273 Wolpe, Gender Equity, p. 110.
274 For current research on school violence and anti-crime initiatives in South African schools, see, generally, Phillip Bongani, Violence in South African Township Schools: An Exploration (Cape Town: Institute of Criminology, UCT, 1999); Cheryl Frank and Ninnette Eliasov, Crime and Violence in Schools: An Exploratory Study into the Experiences of Crime and Violence in Schools in Transition (Cape Town: Institute of Criminology, 1998); Need Analysis of Conditions in Schools (Cape Town: Trauma Center for Survivors of Violence and Torture, 1999); G. Wyngaard, et al., A Comparative Study on Primary and Secondary School Learners' Perceptions of Safety, Injury and Violence in Seven Schools in a Peri-Urban Setting in the Western Cape Region of South Africa (Cape Town: University of South Africa, 1999); Anti-Crime Initiatives in Selected Schools in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area and West Coast (Cape Town: Early Learning Resource Unity and Quaker Peace Centre, 1999); Sarah Henkeman, et al, Evaluation of Impact of the Electric Fence at Manenberg Secondary School (Cape Town: Resources Unlimited, 1999).
275 Education Laws Amendment Act, No. 53 of 2000, Section 17. The act amends the Employment of Educators Act, No. 76 of 1998, to provide that an educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of, among other things: "committing an act of sexual assault on a learner, student or other employee"; "having a sexual relationship with a learner of the school where he or she is employed"; or "seriously assaulting, with the intention to cause grievous bodily harm to, a learner, student or other employee." The section further provides that "If it is alleged that an educator committed a serious misconduct conduct contemplated in subsection (1), the employer must institute disciplinary proceedings."
276 Education Laws Amendment Act, No. 53 of 2000, Schedule 2.
277 South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996, section 9.
278 In response to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, particularly among youth, the Department of Education developed a national policy on HIV/AIDS for students and teachers in public schools. The policy seeks to promote effective prevention and care within the public education system and focuses on providing accurate information on: the nature and risk factors of HIV infection and AIDS; precautionary measures; and the obligation resting on school communities to avoid discrimination against infected persons. Rachel Jewkes, The HIV/AIDS Emergency: Department of Education Guidelines for Educators (Pretoria: Department of Education, 2000).
279 Jewkes, The HIV/AIDS Emergency.
281 Shireen Motala, Salim Vally, and Maropeng Modiba, "A Call to Action: A Review of Minister K. Asmal's Educational Priorities," Quarterly Review of Education and Training in South Africa, vol. 6, no. 3 (September 1999).
282 "Asmal: South Africa Has Thousands of Unqualified or Under-Qualified Teachers," Mail and Guardian, December 8, 2000.
283 Letter from M.T. Mokhobo, Director Gender Equity, National Department of Education, to Human Rights Watch, January 24, 2001.
284 Human Rights Watch interview with Margaret Roper, Johannesburg, March 19, 2000; Porteus, Tirisano: Towards an Intervention Strategy to Address Youth Violence in Schools.
285 Linda Biersteker, Baseline Study of Research Done on Anti-Crime Initiatives at School Level (COLTS, 2000).
286 Launching the manual, the minister of education stated:
Despite its prohibition, we are aware of continuing cases of corporal punishment, which are brought to our attention, or reported in the media. We have to be firm and in some cases we have requested that charges be laid against the educator concerned. But we also have a responsibility to assist teachers to manage without the cane, which for many teachers over many years has been the only way of administering discipline in schools. Fear of being hit might induce a learner to sit still and be quite for a while, but it cannot be a basis for effective learning. And we do not want a cowering child to emerge from our schools; we want confident, affirmed youths, ready to take on the world.
Kader Asmal, press conference, Cape Town, available at http://education.pwv. gov.za/Media/Speeches_2000/October00/Corporal_Punishment.htm, Cape Town, October 5, 2000 (accessed February 13, 2001).
287 Ansuyah Maharaj, "Provinces Quick-Pic Gender Focal Desks," Agenda, no. 41, 1999. According to South African women's groups, "[n]o clear mandate was given to the provincial GEUs. Their role was summarized by the GETT report as to `study and advise' the Director-General on all aspects of gender equity in the education system." Ibid.
288 The GETT report called for each provincial department of education to have a gender equity unit and a gender director. The report recommended that each provincial gender equity unity be located at the highest level of the provincial administration system and attached to the office of the head of department. Wolpe, Gender Equity in Education, pp. 12-14.
289 For a survey of recent initiatives and the challenges of implementation see Olly Mlamleli, Pontsho Mabelane, Vernet Napo, Ntombi Sibiya, and Valerie Free, "Creating Programs for Safe Schools: Opportunities and Challenges in Relation to Gender-Based Violence in South Africa," in McGill Journal of Education, vol. 35, no. 3 (Fall 2000).
290 Human Rights Watch interview with Claudia Mitchell, Gender Equity Coordinator for the Canada-South Africa Education Sector Management Program, Montreal, January 15, 2001.
291 Human Rights Watch interview with Beverly Berry, Gender Equity Focal Person, Western Cape Education Department, Cape Town, April 12, 2000.
292 Western Cape Education Department, "Proposed Gender-based Violence Manual for WCED Employees and Procedures Applicable to the Western Cape Education Department in Dealing with Complaints of Sexual Harassment or Abuse by Learners, Educators, and Employees," (January 2000).
293 Ibid. It should be noted that the Western Cape is the best funded department with the highest per capita expenditure for its students.
294 South African Council for Educators Code of Conduct (2000). See Appendix C.
295 Moshoeshoe Monare, "Sex Harassment by Teachers Under Spotlight," Star, January 14, 2001.
296 Human Rights Watch interview with Colin AJ Collett van Rooyen, CRISP, Durban, March 31, 2000.
297 Human Rights Watch interview with Val Smith, IPT, Durban, March 29, 2000.
298 Human Rights Watch interview with Dorothy Mdluli, Manager, Youth Department, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg, March 14, 2000; Linda Biersteker, Baseline Study of Research Done on Anti-Crime Initiatives at School Level (COLTS, 2000).
299 Human Rights Watch interview with Beverley Barry, Gender Focal Person, Cape Town, April 12, 2000.