MINE ACTION FUNDING
It is very difficult to get an accurate and comprehensive picture of mine action funding. Nevertheless, drawing from the Landmine Monitor research and reports, it is possible to give a representative and informative picture of the global situation. Landmine Monitor has identified approximately U.S.$640 million in mine action spending by seventeen major donors. Nearly all of this spending occurred between 1993-1998.
This is far from a complete global total for mine action spending to date, not just because it reflects funding by only seventeen donors. For some of these donors it does not include spending on victim assistance, for others it does not include mine action funding for 1998 or for some earlier years, and for others it may not include mine action funding from all government departments and agencies. Landmine Monitor has also attempted to separate funds for research and development on demining technologies and equipment from this total. Also left out of this total is U.S.$175 million in mine action funding from the European Community, because at least in some cases the major mine donors reported donations to the EC as part of their domestic mine action spending. This total also does not include in-kind (as opposed to cash) contributions from some of these donors, nor the substantial in-kind contributions made by other donors.
Thus, total global spending on mine action to date is bound to be at least tens of millions of dollars higher than the $640 million compiled from reports by seventeen major donors. But it is a useful number to compare to the $500 million pledged just during the Ottawa treaty signing conference in December 1997, or to the $1 billion per year target of the U.S. 2010 initiative.
Most of the seventeen donors have provided at least a partial year-by-year breakdown of their mine action spending, allowing some assessment of the trend and progress. Again cautioning that the numbers should not be viewed in any way as comprehensive, and recognizing that governments compile this information in a non-uniform way, if the reported mine action spending of these donors is totaled for each year since 1993, the results are as follows:
1993: $22 million (6 donors reporting); 1994: $41 million (8 donors); 1995: $64 million (9 donors); 1996: $94 million (10 donors); 1997: $100 million (11 donors); 1998: $169 million (11 donors).
The tremendous jump from 1997 to 1998 is accounted for by very large increases by Canada ($18.7 million increase) and the United States ($17.6 million), plus substantial increases by Germany ($5.2 million), Sweden ($4.7 million), Norway ($4.1 million), United Kingdom ($3 million), and Finland ($2.1 million). It is also notable that in 1998 Italy spent $12 million, more than its combined spending of the previous three years, and Japan spent $8.7 million, nearly 30% of all its previous mine action funding. (1997 figures are not available for those two nations for comparative purposes).
Major Mine Action Donors
All figures are in U.S. dollars, unless otherwise noted.
United States -- $164.3 million
This is for fiscal years 1993-1998. It does not include victim assistance funding. The Leahy War Victims Fund, which largely goes to mine victims, totaled $50 million from 1989-98.
It also does not include $45 million for demining research and development . The U.S. has stated that its contributions to mine action programs, including R&D, will total $100 million in FY 1999.
1993 $10.2 million
1994 $15.9 million
1995 $29.2 million
1996 $29.8 million
1997 $30.8 million
1998 $48.4 million37
Norway -- $66.6 million
This includes funding from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1994-1998 (NOK 398 million) and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation 1994-1997 (NOK 101 million) . It includes funding for victim assistance. In December 1997 Norway committed to spending $120 million over a five-year period on mine action.
1994 $4.0 million
1995 $11.6 million
1996 $13.5 million
1997 $16.7 million
1998 $20.8 million
Sweden -- $52.1 million
This includes funding from 1990-1998 (SEK 417 million). It is estimated that a maximum of 10% has been devoted to victim assistance.
1990-93 $5.5 million
1994 $2.6 million
1995 $5.1 million
1996 $10.4 million
1997 $11.9 million
1998 $16.6 million
United Kingdom -- $49.7 million
This includes funding from fiscal year 1992-93 to 1998-99. It does not include victim assistance funding, or UK contributions to EC mine clearance projects. At the Ottawa treaty signing conference, the UK said that it would double its annual contribution to demining activities to a total of £10 million ($16 million) by the year 2001.
1992-1993 $2.8 million
1993-1994 $5.1 million
1994-1995 $9.6 million
1995-1996 $7.9 million
1996-1997 $7.1 million
1997-1998 $7.1 million
1998-1999 $10.1 million
Germany -- $42.4 million
This includes funding from 1993-1998 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DEM 51.3 million) and Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (DEM 31.2 million). It apparently includes victim assistance funding. An additional DEM 9.5 million ($5.4 million) has been spent on demining research and development. A year-by-year breakdown is available only for the Foreign Ministry funds, not for the Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development.
1993 $0.3 million
1994 $0.5 million
1995 $0.8 million
1996 $7.9 million
1997 $4.9 million
1998 $10.1 million
Japan -- $38.7 million
Although a year-by-year breakdown is not available, this includes approximately $30 million through 1997, and $8.65 million (106 million yen) in 1998. It apparently includes victim assistance funding. At the Ottawa treaty signing conference, Japan pledged to spend 10 billion yen ($85 million) over five years.
Denmark -- $37.7 million
This is for 1992-1998. It includes DKK 90 million ($13 million) in bilateral contributions and DKK $175 million ($24.7 million) to UN agencies, the ICRC and non-governmental organizations. It includes victim assistance funding. The following year-by-year breakdown does not include bilateral contributions.
1992 $1.9 million
1993 $1.7 million
1994 $2.0 million
1995 $2.3 million
1996 $7.2 million
1997 $4.7 million
1998 $4.9 million
Canada -- $37 million
This includes Canadian International Development Agency spending 1993-1997 of Cdn$16.8 million ($11.1 million), Department of National Defence spending 1989-1997 of Cdn$6.2 million ($4.1 million), and Canadian Landmine Fund spending in 1998 of Cdn$33 million ($21.7 million). It includes victim assistance funding. Not included is approximately $1 million in demining research and development. In December 1997, Canada committed to spend Cdn$100 million on mine action over the next five years.
1989 $1.7 million
1993 $2.2 million
1994 $2.9 million
1995 $1.5 million
1996 $4.0 million
1997 $3.0 million
1998 $21.7 million
France -- $35.7 million
This funding for 1995-1998 includes 142 million francs contributed to EU mine action programs and 72 million francs for bilateral programs. Victim assistance funding is included. No year-by-year breakdown is available.
Netherlands -- $30.2 million
This is funding for 1996-1998 only, for demining, mine awareness, and victim assistance.
1996 $10.7 million
1997 $10.2 million
1998 $9.3 million
Australia -- $22.9 million
This is for 1994-1999 (Aus$36 million). No year-by-year breakdown is available. It apparently includes victim assistance funding. Australia has committed to spending Aus$100 million ($65.2 million) on mine action by the year 2005.
Italy -- $22.4 million
This includes 18 billion lire ($10.45 million) for 1995-1997 and 20 billion lire ($11.97 million) in 1998. It appears to include victim assistance funding.
Switzerland -- $16.9 million
This is for 1993-1997 and includes $11 million for victim assistance, $5.5 million for mine clearance, and $400,000 for mine awareness programs.
1993 $2.7 million
1994 $3.5 million
1995 $4.1 million
1996 $2.6 million
1997 $4.0 million
Finland -- $14.4 million
This is for 1991-1998. It is unknown if it includes victim assistance programs. Finland has pledged to allocate $22.6 million to mine action between 1998-2001.
1995 $0.7 million
1996 $1.3 million
1997 $4.5 million
1998 $6.6 million
Belgium --$5.1 million
This includes mine action spending 1994-1998. Another $2.65 million has been spent on demining research and development.
Austria -- $4.2 million
This is funding from 1994-1998 (54 million schillings) to UN agencies and to NGOs for demining, mine awareness and mine victim assistance programs.
Ireland -- $4 million+
This is funding from 1994-1997 (more than £3 million) for demining and rehabilitation projects, and includes support for country programs, the UN Voluntary Trust Fund, and NGOs. The 1997 total was £1.14 million.
Demining Research and Development Funding
Wherever possible, the above figures do not include funding for research and development on demining technologies and equipment, though in some cases it is unknown if the government has included demining R&D in its totals. Landmine Monitor has identified the following demining R&D spending:
* United States: $45.4 million (1995-1998), with another $17.7 million estimated for 1999;
* Sweden: approximately $22.5 million (1994-1998);
* Netherlands: approximately $10 million (1997-1998);
* Belgium: $2.65 million (through 1998);
* United Kingdom: $1.7 million (1994/95-1998/99);
* Canada: about $1 million in 1998, the first year of an $11.2 million five-year program;
* Australia has indicated it will spend $2.6 million 1998-2002;
* European Community: $18 million
Major Mine Action Recipients
Accurate, complete, and comparable figures for major mine action recipients are even more elusive than those for major mine action donors. The following figures from Landmine Monitor research and country reports, while admittedly incomplete in most cases, give an indication of the level of mine action funding in various mine-affected countries. It seems clear that the biggest recipients have been Afghanistan, Mozambique, Cambodia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Angola.
In Afghanistan, funding for the UN Mine Action Program for Afghanistan totaled $113 million from 1991 through October 1998. This includes demining and mine awareness but not victim assistance. Mozambiques Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation has stated that funding for demining from 1993 through 1998 has exceeded $116 million. Landmine Monitor was able to identify in detail $93.5 million in donor spending and pledges for mine action in Mozambique for the period 1994-2001.
Cash contributions to the Cambodia Mine Action Center totaled $63 million from 1994-1998, but in-kind contributions have amounted to millions, perhaps tens of millions, more. Donors have reported approximately $83 million in contributions and commitments. Mine action contributions to Bosnia-Herzegovina from ten major donors from 1996-1998 totaled $36 million, and the World Bank is supporting a $30 million War Victims Rehabilitation Project. Angola has received an estimated $51 million from major donors through 1998.
Five donor countries and the EU had spent or committed $11.8 million to mine action activities in Iraqi Kurdistan as of November 1998. It was reported that under the UN-brokered oil for food deal with Baghdad, $16.5 million was allocated for mine clearance and surveys in Iraqi Kurdistan in 1998, earmarked for the UN Office of Project Services. The government of Laos has reported $5 million in cash contributions and $8 million in in-kind contributions to the UXO Lao Trust Fund from 1996-1998. Donor governments have reported more than $26 million in contributions and pledges to Laos.
Six donors have reported $13.2 million in mine action funding and commitments to the Central American nations of Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala, most of it through a regional program in cooperation with the Organization of American States and the Inter-American Defense Board. Through 1998, the U.S. had spent $12 million on mine action programs in Rwanda, $8.2 million in Ethiopia, $8 million in Eritrea, and $7.2 in Namibia. Croatia has reportedly spent some $26 million from its budget for mine action activities, but has received approximately $4 million from the international community.
37 The U.S. has reported mine action spending in 1998 of both $66.1 million and $91.8 million; the smaller number (less $17.7 million in Pentagon R&D) is used here.