May 5, 2008

V. Changes between 1996 and 2003

We have compared data from 1996, covered in our earlier report Punishment and Prejudice, with the results from our analysis here of the 2003 data.[51] Although racial disparities in rates of incarceration for drug offenders diminished to some extent in most of the reporting states, a comparison of the total rates for 1996 and 2003 indicates a slight worsening of the disparity nationwide.

Racial Disparities 1996-2003

As shown in Table 6, both black and white rates of prison admissions for drug offenses dropped during this period, although that of whites dropped by a bigger percentage. The black rate of prison admissions for drug offenses decreased 11.4 percent from 1996 to 2003, from 289.4 to 256.2 per 100,000 black adults. The white rate of prison admissions for drug offenses decreased by 13.2 percent, from 29.1 to 25.3 per 100,000 white adults. The white rate of prison admissions for drug offenses increased in 31 states between 1996 and 2003, and the black rate of admission increased in 18.

The racial disparity reflected in the ratio of black-to-white drug offender prison admission rates decreased in 30 of the 34 states, but it increased in states with large populations such as New York and California. (Table 7). The net result is that the racial disparity among the rates of drug offender prison admissions across the 34 states in 2003 appears to have increased slightly. In 1996 the black drug offender prison admission rate was 9.9 times greater than that of whites. In 2003 it was 10.1 times greater. (Table 7). This slight increase in the ratio of black and white rates may, however, reflect changes or errors in data reporting by the states, rather than a real increase in the disparity.

There was little change in the racial composition of drug offender prison admissions between 1996 and 2003. (Table 8). Taking the 34 reporting states together, the black proportion of drug admissions to prison remained at 53.5 percent. The white proportion of drug admissions decreased from 35.8 percent to 33.3 percent, while the proportion of drug offenders characterized as "other" increased from 10.6 percent to 13.2 percent.

The role of drug offenses in sending blacks and whites to prison did not change markedly between 1996 and 2003. As shown in Table 9, drug offenses accounted for 25 percent of all whites sent to prison in 1996, and 25.4 percent in 2003. For blacks the increase was slightly greater: drug offenses accounted for 36.8 percent of all blacks sent to prison in 1996 and 38.2 percent in 2003. The proportion of drug offenders among all whites sent to prison increased in 29 states, whereas it increased among black offenders in only 20 states.

Among the individual states, there were some notable changes in rates of prison admission for white and black drug offenders during this period:

  • The white rate of drug offender prison admissions increased by more than 100 percent in 13 states. (Table 6).
  • The three states with the largest increases in prison admission rates for white drug offenders were Minnesota (271.7 percent), Mississippi (275.4 percent), and Tennessee (604.5 percent). (Table 6).
  • The rate of prison admissions for black drug offenders increased by more than 100 percent in three states (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Tennessee), and decreased by more than 50 percent in three states (California, New Hampshire, and Oregon). (Table 6).
  • Two states had significant increases in the black-to-white ratio of drug offender prison admissions rates: California (ratio worsened by 61.5 percent) and New York (ratio worsened by 41.6 percent). In both states, the black and white rates of admission to prison for drug offenders decreased between 1996 and 2003, but the white rate decreased more than the black rate. (Tables 6, 7).

Table 6: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003

(Rates calculated per 100,000 residents of each race)

State

White

Black

1996

2003

% Change

1996

2003

% Change

Alabama

19.5

50.6

160.0%

171.3

177.2

3.5%

California

121.7

26.5

-78.3%

799.7

280.8

-64.9%

Colorado

11.4

20.4

79.5%

287.4

294.8

2.6%

Florida

14.5

27.5

89.5%

257.7

321.5

24.7%

Georgia

13.9

33.9

143.3%

133.2

169.9

27.5%

Hawaii

10.8

14.2

31.8%

52.1

82.5

58.3%

Illinois

10.9

26.0

137.9%

569.5

613.8

7.8%

Iowa

12.9

29.3

126.8%

377.6

224.3

-40.6%

Kentucky

27.4

63.1

130.4%

450.2

392.3

-12.9%

Louisiana

19.2

27.8

45.0%

218.3

202.9

-7.1%

Maryland

10.9

21.3

95.9%

265.3

370.5

39.6%

Michigan

6.9

9.0

31.8%

133.7

106.3

-20.5%

Minnesota

6.2

23.1

271.7%

266.1

233.6

-12.2%

Mississippi

21.1

79.2

275.4%

154.4

239.4

55.0%

Missouri

13.4

35.4

164.6%

82.8

95.4

15.3%

Nebraska

19.7

35.9

82.1%

283.3

166.2

-41.3%

Nevada

19.1

17.6

-8.1%

170.0

115.5

-32.1%

New Hampshire

11.5

13.3

15.7%

238.7

95.2

-60.1%

New Jersey

15.4

19.9

29.2%

410.1

409.4

-0.2%

New York

22.2

11.3

-49.1%

224.6

161.8

-28.0%

North Carolina

14.0

24.2

72.1%

308.2

264.2

-14.3%

North Dakota

15.4

54.4

253.1%

78.9

209.2

165.3%

Oklahoma

33.9

88.3

160.3%

252.0

392.4

55.7%

Oregon

9.9

11.4

15.2%

112.5

47.5

-57.8%

Pennsylvania

9.2

14.8

60.4%

134.1

193.7

44.5%

South Carolina

14.4

28.0

95.2%

223.2

260.0

16.5%

South Dakota

28.0

58.8

110.0%

225.4

526.3

133.5%

Tennessee

3.1

22.0

604.5%

26.3

184.7

601.6%

Texas

13.0

19.7

51.5%

222.2

230.2

3.6%

Utah

20.9

42.8

104.9%

196.5

322.4

64.1%

Virginia

14.6

17.4

19.6%

276.0

229.4

-16.9%

Washington

33.7

44.7

32.7%

520.5

449.7

-13.6%

West Virginia

5.0

8.6

69.9%

129.0

140.0

8.5%

Wisconsin

6.8

8.0

17.6%

340.2

340.3

0.0%

Total*

29.1

25.3

-13.2%

289.4

256.2

-11.4%

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 2003.

* Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

Table 7: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 1996 and 2003

(Rates calculated per 100,000 residents)

State

Black/White

Black/White

% Change

1996

2003

1996-2003

Alabama

8.8

3.5

-60.2%

California

6.6

10.6

61.5%

Colorado

25.3

14.4

-42.9%

Florida

17.8

11.7

-34.2%

Georgia

9.6

5.0

-47.6%

Hawaii

4.8

5.8

20.1%

Illinois

52.1

23.6

-54.7%

Iowa

29.2

7.7

-73.8%

Kentucky

16.4

6.2

-62.2%

Louisiana

11.4

7.3

-35.9%

Maryland

24.4

17.4

-28.7%

Michigan

19.5

11.8

-39.7%

Minnesota

42.8

10.1

-76.4%

Mississippi

7.3

3.0

-58.7%

Missouri

6.2

2.7

-56.4%

Nebraska

14.4

4.6

-67.8%

Nevada

8.9

6.6

-26.1%

New Hampshire

20.7

7.1

-65.5%

New Jersey

26.6

20.6

-22.8%

New York

10.1

14.3

41.6%

North Carolina

22.0

10.9

-50.2%

North Dakota

5.1

3.8

-24.9%

Oklahoma

7.4

4.4

-40.2%

Oregon

11.3

4.1

-63.4%

Pennsylvania

14.5

13.1

-9.9%

South Carolina

15.5

9.3

-40.3%

South Dakota

8.1

9.0

11.2%

Tennessee

8.4

8.4

-0.4%

Texas

17.0

11.7

-31.6%

Utah

9.4

7.5

-19.9%

Virginia

19.0

13.2

-30.5%

Washington

15.5

10.1

-34.9%

West Virginia

25.6

16.3

-36.2%

Wisconsin

49.8

42.4

-14.9%

Total*

9.9

10.1

2.0%

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 2003.

* Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

Table 8: Racial Composition of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 1996 and 2003

State

1996

2003

White

Black

Other

White

Black

Other

Alabama

26.6%

73.1%

0.3%

46.2%

53.6%

0.2%

California

55.3%

33.3%

11.5%

30.3%

27.1%

42.6%

Colorado

28.4%

30.5%

41.1%

42.2%

25.3%

32.6%

Florida

27.2%

71.3%

1.5%

33.6%

64.0%

2.4%

Georgia

22.4%

77.1%

0.4%

33.1%

66.2%

0.7%

Hawaii

24.8%

9.8%

65.4%

16.8%

6.9%

76.3%

Illinois

9.5%

82.4%

8.1%

18.4%

74.9%

6.7%

Iowa

60.7%

31.1%

8.2%

85.3%

13.4%

1.4%

Kentucky

45.7%

54.1%

0.2%

67.8%

31.9%

0.3%

Louisiana

17.2%

82.2%

0.6%

23.3%

76.3%

0.5%

Maryland

9.8%

87.6%

2.5%

12.1%

87.0%

0.9%

Michigan

24.8%

75.1%

0.1%

34.6%

64.6%

0.7%

Minnesota

48.2%

50.1%

1.7%

68.9%

26.1%

5.0%

Mississippi

21.6%

78.3%

0.1%

38.6%

61.0%

0.3%

Missouri

58.6%

40.9%

0.5%

62.5%

37.1%

0.4%

Nebraska

64.8%

34.0%

1.2%

81.2%

15.0%

3.8%

Nevada

43.4%

29.5%

27.1%

45.1%

23.9%

31.0%

New Hampshire

86.7%

12.4%

0.9%

88.7%

5.6%

5.6%

New Jersey

16.5%

72.3%

11.1%

19.7%

69.8%

10.5%

New York

24.5%

52.1%

23.4%

19.1%

59.5%

21.4%

North Carolina

14.4%

83.2%

2.4%

23.8%

69.7%

6.5%

North Dakota

83.3%

2.4%

14.3%

83.2%

2.0%

14.8%

Oklahoma

53.7%

32.3%

14.0%

63.3%

24.6%

12.2%

Oregon

46.9%

9.2%

43.9%

84.3%

6.2%

9.5%

Pennsylvania

41.4%

58.5%

0.1%

41.4%

58.2%

0.4%

South Carolina

14.2%

85.5%

0.2%

21.4%

76.9%

1.8%

South Dakota

90.2%

4.6%

5.2%

83.3%

5.5%

11.2%

Tennessee

40.1%

59.2%

0.8%

38.0%

58.6%

3.4%

Texas

21.4%

50.3%

28.4%

29.8%

46.6%

23.6%

Utah

89.9%

7.4%

2.7%

90.8%

6.4%

2.8%

Virginia

18.0%

81.3%

0.8%

23.1%

75.5%

1.4%

Washington

60.3%

32.4%

7.2%

68.8%

25.6%

5.5%

West Virginia

55.3%

43.9%

0.8%

65.2%

34.3%

0.6%

Wisconsin

28.7%

69.4%

2.0%

29.9%

68.7%

1.4%

Total*

35.8%

53.5%

10.6%

33.3%

53.5%

13.2%

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 1996 and 2003.

* Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

Table 9: Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses as a Percentage of All Admissions, by Race, 1996 and 2003

State

White

Black

1996

2003

% Change

1996

2003

% Change

Alabama

20.1%

31.2%

55.7%

31.9%

32.4%

1.6%

California

33.6%

29.2%

-13.2%

36.9%

32.8%

-11.1%

Colorado

15.3%

23.3%

52.4%

32.1%

37.3%

16.4%

Florida

14.0%

20.5%

47.1%

34.0%

38.8%

14.3%

Georgia

17.3%

29.5%

70.5%

31.8%

34.0%

7.0%

Hawaii

10.9%

13.6%

25.2%

23.6%

31.4%

32.7%

Illinois

15.3%

25.3%

65.5%

47.1%

47.5%

0.9%

Iowa

11.9%

32.9%

176.8%

22.1%

21.4%

-3.4%

Kentucky

19.3%

30.8%

59.8%

44.6%

39.2%

-12.0%

Louisiana

20.3%

28.1%

38.6%

33.8%

43.9%

29.8%

Maryland

11.3%

22.8%

102.1%

26.1%

50.9%

94.6%

Michigan

10.1%

11.2%

11.1%

28.5%

22.5%

-21.3%

Minnesota

13.5%

35.3%

162.1%

22.6%

28.3%

25.5%

Mississippi

21.7%

35.3%

62.9%

33.1%

36.3%

9.7%

Missouri

17.0%

31.1%

82.7%

20.2%

37.5%

85.9%

Nebraska

22.0%

31.1%

41.9%

29.4%

18.9%

-35.6%

Nevada

15.3%

16.2%

6.0%

23.6%

18.8%

-20.2%

New Hampshire

18.4%

19.9%

8.1%

60.9%

21.1%

-65.4%

New Jersey

29.5%

32.2%

9.3%

50.0%

55.0%

10.0%

New York

39.9%

25.9%

-35.2%

48.8%

44.6%

-8.6%

North Carolina

10.4%

14.4%

38.3%

33.2%

27.6%

-16.9%

North Dakota

21.1%

42.3%

100.0%

20.0%

16.2%

-18.9%

Oklahoma

25.0%

44.5%

78.4%

31.8%

43.6%

37.1%

Oregon

10.9%

14.8%

36.1%

11.7%

13.4%

14.0%

Pennsylvania

26.1%

25.2%

-3.2%

33.8%

43.1%

27.5%

South Carolina

10.7%

16.7%

55.4%

30.1%

31.8%

5.6%

South Dakota

22.4%

30.6%

36.9%

25.0%

35.1%

40.4%

Tennessee

12.6%

18.8%

48.9%

36.3%

30.5%

-16.0%

Texas

18.4%

25.7%

39.5%

37.6%

38.8%

3.1%

Utah

27.9%

38.9%

39.4%

28.2%

38.0%

34.8%

Virginia

15.9%

14.9%

-6.5%

38.2%

32.2%

-15.7%

Washington

32.6%

31.9%

-2.4%

51.0%

44.5%

-12.9%

West Virginia

9.0%

10.1%

11.9%

42.5%

31.8%

-25.3%

Wisconsin

17.2%

19.7%

14.9%

37.8%

44.9%

19.0%

Total*

25.0%

25.4%

1.9%

36.8%

38.2%

3.7%

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 1996 and 2003.

*Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

The increase in the rate of white drug offender admissions in 31 states between 1996 and 2003 may partially reflect the impact of the increased manufacturing and use of methamphetamine in the past decade.[52]For example, in 1994, an estimated 3,825,000 people age 12 and older had used methamphetamine for nonmedical purposes in their lifetime, and 760,000 had used it in the past year.[53] By 2006, the estimated number of people who had used methamphetamine for nonmedical purposes in their lifetime had soared to 14,206,000, including 1,889,000 who had used it in the past year.[54] The available data also suggests whites use methamphetamine far more than blacks. For example, in 2006, 6.9 percent of whites surveyed reported use of methamphetamine during their lifetime, compared to 1.9 percent of blacks. Translating these rates into numbers yields an estimate of 11,540,000 whites who have used methamphetamine, and 546,000 blacks.[55] According to a study on racial disparities in Minnesota's imprisonment rates, the disparity had indeed lessened recently due to the "imprisonment of Methamphetamine offenders who are predominately white."[56]

Race and Gender 1996-2003

Tables 10 and 11 show the rates of drug offender prison admissions for men and for women, disaggregated by race, along with the percentage of change in those rates between 1996 and 2003. The rate for white men increased in 31 states, including in 13 states where the increase was over 100 percent. Nevertheless, the total white male rate declined over the period by 18.4 percent because of the marked decline in such large states as California and New York. The rate for black men decreased in 17 states, including in California and New York, and in only two states (Tennessee and North Dakota) did the growth exceed 100 percent. The net result was a decrease of 11.2 percent for the total black rate between 1996 and 2003. Because the rate for black men declined less than the rate of white men, the disparity between the two grew worse: as shown in Table 12, black men were sent to prison on drug charges at 10.8 times the rate of white men in 1996. In 2003, black men were sent to prison on drug charges at 11.8 times the rate of white men.

The pattern was different for women. Between 1996 and 2003, the rate for white women increased in 30 states. (Table 11). Although the increases in many states were significant-in 19 states the rate increased by more than 100 percent-the declines in California and New York kept the total increase to only 14 percent. The rate at which black women were sent to prison for drug offenses decreased in 21 states during this period-and where the rate increased, the growth was relatively small compared to the increases in white women's rates. The result was a significant total decrease of 28.9 percent among black women entering prison for drug offenses. As a result of these changes, the ratio of rates at which black and white women were sent to prison for drug offenses decreased, dropping from 7.7 to 4.8. (Table 12). That is, the racial disparity in the women's rates was reduced.

Because women are only a small percentage of prison drug admissions, the changes in the male rates have a much greater impact on the overall rates.

The changes-or lack thereof-in the total as well as state-specific figures between 1996 and 2003 reflect many factors, the analysis of which is beyond the scope of this report. We want to emphasize the huge impact that a large state, such as California, can have on the total figures for the 34 states. We also want to caution that to an unknown extent, the data may reflect changes in reporting methods by the states with regard to race and ethnicities.

Table 10: Male Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003

(Rates calculated per 100,000 male residents)

State

White

Black

1996

2003

% Change

1996

2003

% Change

Alabama

34.0

83.5

145.3%

341.1

363.6

6.6%

California

214.6

43.8

-79.6%

1414.5

515.1

-63.6%

Colorado

19.1

31.9

67.1%

471.0

456.5

-3.1%

Florida

25.1

44.9

78.9%

507.4

628.2

23.8%

Georgia

23.4

55.5

137.1%

268.3

345.3

28.7%

Hawaii

14.7

20.0

35.8%

62.4

122.0

95.6%

Illinois

19.6

44.2

125.3%

1116.2

1227.6

10.0%

Iowa

23.6

53.7

127.3%

672.3

402.7

-40.1%

Kentucky

44.8

102.6

129.0%

886.3

725.8

-18.1%

Louisiana

34.1

47.7

39.8%

442.7

414.0

-6.5%

Maryland

18.6

39.7

113.3%

541.5

760.5

40.4%

Michigan

12.1

16.3

34.2%

274.2

218.8

-20.2%

Minnesota

11.3

40.8

262.6%

466.6

412.1

-11.7%

Mississippi

38.8

132.4

241.6%

322.1

477.7

48.3%

Missouri

24.1

60.9

152.4%

173.0

129.8

-24.9%

Nebraska

35.2

62.3

77.1%

480.5

277.3

-42.3%

Nevada

30.6

26.6

-13.1%

307.1

211.5

-31.1%

New Hampshire

20.2

24.2

20.0%

363.5

167.0

-54.1%

New Jersey

28.4

34.7

22.3%

829.0

822.1

-0.8%

New York

38.6

19.5

-49.5%

432.9

333.9

-22.9%

North Carolina

22.8

36.7

60.7%

606.8

519.5

-14.4%

North Dakota

27.7

90.1

225.6%

68.4

281.7

311.5%

Oklahoma

54.1

143.7

165.6%

433.8

684.0

57.7%

Oregon

16.4

19.4

18.0%

205.9

66.8

-67.6%

Pennsylvania

17.8

27.6

54.7%

277.9

407.7

46.7%

South Carolina

25.6

47.3

84.7%

452.5

537.2

18.7%

South Dakota

47.7

99.5

108.7%

304.9

597.6

96.0%

Tennessee

5.7

33.8

495.5%

53.4

371.9

596.9%

Texas

20.5

31.1

51.7%

387.5

430.6

11.1%

Utah

37.9

70.7

86.7%

344.2

468.6

36.2%

Virginia

24.6

28.4

15.6%

516.2

435.2

-15.7%

Washington

57.1

74.4

30.3%

836.4

719.8

-13.9%

West Virginia

9.1

14.3

57.0%

245.1

245.9

0.3%

Wisconsin

12.7

14.4

13.8%

654.9

664.8

1.5%

Total*

51.6

42.1

-18.4%

558.0

495.5

-11.2%

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 1996 and 2003.

* Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

Table 11: Female Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003

(Rates calculated per 100,000 female residents)

State

White

Black

1996

2003

% Change

1996

2003

% Change

Alabama

6.2

19.9

223.1%

36.7

26.1

-28.9%

California

29.5

9.2

-68.7%

212.0

62.5

-70.5%

Colorado

4.0

8.9

124.6%

99.6

117.2

17.6%

Florida

4.8

11.2

131.0%

41.7

50.7

21.7%

Georgia

4.9

12.7

157.6%

23.5

21.8

-7.4%

Hawaii

6.3

7.7

22.8%

38.1

25.3

-33.6%

Illinois

2.8

8.5

203.5%

120.5

109.4

-9.2%

Iowa

3.2

6.4

101.7%

73.4

28.8

-60.8%

Kentucky

11.6

26.4

128.5%

83.5

88.5

6.1%

Louisiana

5.4

9.1

68.1%

37.8

27.4

-27.5%

Maryland

3.6

4.1

14.4%

34.0

50.1

47.7%

Michigan

2.0

2.1

8.7%

18.8

11.0

-41.5%

Minnesota

1.5

6.1

309.2%

52.6

38.5

-26.9%

Mississippi

4.9

29.0

494.1%

20.5

41.1

100.7%

Missouri

3.6

11.6

223.7%

10.0

14.3

43.2%

Nebraska

5.4

10.6

96.0%

105.1

60.7

-42.2%

Nevada

7.2

8.2

14.2%

35.2

19.4

-44.9%

New Hampshire

3.4

3.1

-9.7%

78.0

0.0

-100.0%

New Jersey

3.5

6.2

74.3%

53.5

59.5

11.2%

New York

7.3

3.7

-49.4%

55.7

24.1

-56.8%

North Carolina

5.8

12.2

108.5%

63.0

50.7

-19.5%

North Dakota

3.5

19.2

453.9%

93.0

91.5

-1.6%

Oklahoma

15.3

35.9

135.1%

90.0

119.5

32.7%

Oregon

3.8

3.8

-0.2%

10.7

24.7

130.7%

Pennsylvania

1.5

3.1

101.2%

15.5

13.0

-16.2%

South Carolina

3.9

9.7

150.7%

36.5

30.8

-15.7%

South Dakota

9.4

19.3

104.7%

87.9

387.6

341.1%

Tennessee

0.8

10.9

1272.9%

4.6

28.9

529.0%

Texas

6.0

8.6

45.1%

73.9

51.4

-30.5%

Utah

4.6

15.2

231.5%

0.0

117.7

--

Virginia

5.1

6.9

36.0%

65.2

49.5

-24.0%

Washington

10.9

15.6

42.9%

167.4

133.5

-20.2%

West Virginia

1.4

3.3

132.7%

30.9

32.4

4.9%

Wisconsin

1.4

1.9

38.0%

64.6

51.5

-20.3%

Total*

8.0

9.1

14.0%

61.9

44.0

-28.9%

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 1996 and 2003.

*Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

Table 12: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses by Gender, 1996 and 2003

(Rates calculated per 100,000 adult residents)

State

1996

2003

Black:White

Black:White

Male

Female

All

Male

Female

All

Alabama

10.0

6.0

8.8

4.4

1.3

3.5

California

6.6

7.2

6.6

11.8

6.8

10.6

Colorado

24.7

25.1

25.3

14.3

13.2

14.4

Florida

20.2

8.6

17.8

14.0

4.5

11.7

Georgia

11.5

4.8

9.6

6.2

1.7

5.0

Hawaii

4.2

6.1

4.8

6.1

3.3

5.8

Illinois

56.8

42.9

52.1

27.7

12.8

23.6

Iowa

28.5

23.3

29.2

7.5

4.5

7.7

Kentucky

19.8

7.2

16.4

7.1

3.4

6.2

Louisiana

13.0

7.0

11.4

8.7

3.0

7.3

Maryland

29.1

9.5

24.4

19.2

12.3

17.4

Michigan

22.6

9.6

19.5

13.4

5.2

11.8

Minnesota

41.5

35.0

42.8

10.1

6.3

10.1

Mississippi

8.3

4.2

7.3

3.6

1.4

3.0

Missouri

7.2

2.8

6.2

2.1

1.2

2.7

Nebraska

13.7

19.5

14.4

4.4

5.8

4.6

Nevada

10.0

4.9

8.9

8.0

2.4

6.6

New Hampshire

18.0

22.8

20.7

6.9

0.0

7.1

New Jersey

29.2

15.1

26.6

23.7

9.6

20.6

New York

11.2

7.6

10.1

17.1

6.5

14.3

North Carolina

26.6

10.8

22.0

14.2

4.2

10.9

North Dakota

2.5

26.8

5.1

3.1

4.8

3.8

Oklahoma

8.0

5.9

7.4

4.8

3.3

4.4

Oregon

12.6

2.8

11.3

3.5

6.5

4.1

Pennsylvania

15.6

10.1

14.5

14.8

4.2

13.1

South Carolina

17.7

9.4

15.5

11.3

3.2

9.3

South Dakota

6.4

9.3

8.1

6.0

20.0

9.0

Tennessee

9.4

5.8

8.4

11.0

2.6

8.4

Texas

18.9

12.4

17.0

13.9

5.9

11.7

Utah

9.1

0.0

9.4

6.6

7.7

7.5

Virginia

21.0

12.8

19.0

15.3

7.1

13.2

Washington

14.6

15.3

15.5

9.7

8.5

10.1

West Virginia

26.9

22.0

25.6

17.2

9.9

16.3

Wisconsin

51.6

47.8

49.8

46.1

27.6

42.4

Total*

10.8

7.7

9.9

11.8

4.8

10.1

Source: National Corrections Reporting Program, 1996 and 2003.

* Total calculated on basis of 34 reporting states.

[51] Human Rights Watch, Punishment and Prejudice. We have recomputed the 1996 data, to ensure the admissions data for both 2003 and 1996 have been analyzed using the same methodology. The 1996 data presented in this report is thus in a few places not identical to that published in Punishment and Prejudice.

 [52] Methamphetamine is a synthetic psychostimulant that is cheap, highly addictive, and dangerous when used for nonmedical purposes. Traditionally, it has been a drug used primarily by lower middle class white men, although this may be changing as the number of women as well as minorities using the drug is apparently increasing. Since the early 1990s, use of "meth" has spread from the west and southwest into the midwest and south. See, for example, SAMHSA, "State Estimates of Past Year Methamphetamine Use," The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Report, Issue 37, 2006, http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/stateMeth/stateMeth.htm (accessed April 16, 2008); and SAMHSA, "Methamphetamine Use," The NSDUH Report, January 26, 2007, http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k7/meth/meth.pdf (accessed April 16, 2008). Persons in the west were more likely to have used methamphetamine in the past year than persons in the midwest, south, and northeast. Use of the drug is lowest in the northeast. In certain parts of the country, methamphetamine now exceeds cocaine and heroin as the drug of greatest law enforcement concern. For example, the National Association of Counties reported that 47.4 percent of surveyed county law enforcement officials said that methamphetamine was the biggest drug problem in their counties, compared to 21 percent who reported that cocaine was their biggest problem. See National Association of Counties (NACO), "The Meth Epidemic: The Changing Demographics of Methamphetamine," August 2007, http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Library&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=24797 (accessed April 16, 2008).

[53] SAMHSA, "National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Advance Report # 18 on the Findings of the 1995 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse," http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/ar18t028.htm#A1 (lifetime use), and http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/treatan/treana13.htm#E10E52 (past year use) (accessed April 16, 2008).

[54] SAMHSA, "Results from the 2006 National Survey,"  Tables 8.43A-8.45BB.

[55] The respondents were age 12 years and older. Ibid., Detailed Tables, Table 8.43B. See also, for example, Council on Crime and Justice, "Justice, Where Art Thou."

[56] Council on Crime and Justice, "Justice, Where Art Thou."