VI. FALUNGONG OUTSIDE MAINLAND CHINA
As soon as the crackdown started in July 1999, Falungong looked for support from foreign governments and multilateral organizations such as the office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, and from Falungong practitioners outside China, estimated at thirty million by the organization's spokespersons. Falungong leaders sought leverage and legitimacy by urging governments in the West and throughout Asia to express outrage at China's human rights violations and to pressure the Chinese leadership to reverse its ban on Falungong. With the crackdown underway and the possibility that Falungong's visibility within China would wane, its leaders also promoted the growth of the movement in countries outside China to demonstrate Falungong's continued vitality and efficacy.
Practitioners in the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong (SAR), there since 1996, have supported the rights of those on the mainland from the time the crackdown began in July 1999.205 The Hong Kong government, on the other hand, has quietly chipped away at the rights of SAR practitioners. On paper, Hong Kong has held the line and Falungong remains legal there; SAR authorities have not passed an anti-cult law or anti-sedition legislation, as some had feared, which would have provided a legal basis for banning the group. Nor has the SAR government seriously restricted Falungong followers from practicing and making their views publicly known through marches, meetings, and demonstrations. Responding to pressure from Beijing, Hong Kong authorities have, however, limited Falungongpractitioners' use of public facilities and restricted access to followers based outside the SAR. Authorities have also put Falungong on notice by declaring that the group has all the markings of an "evil cult," that it is being carefully monitored, and that it could be shut down quickly should Hong Kong authorities deem such action necessary.
As the examples below show, in many Asian countries Falungong fared poorly at the hands of government officials. The desire of many of these countries' leaders to do nothing that would jeopardize relations with China meant their governments took steps to limit Falungong's growth. In some cases they restricted international meetings within their borders, imprisoned and expelled practitioners for what would normally be minor offenses, refused tax breaks, or counseled against planned appearances by Li Hongzhi, Falungong's leader. At the same time as governments were restricting Falungong's activities, they permitted the Chinese government to organize anti-Falungong rallies. The Chinese embassy in Singapore organized a "say no to the cult" seminar for Southeast Asia; a similar event was held in Bangkok.248 If Falungong's leadership had hoped to build a major constituency in an Asian country other than China, it had to be bitterly disappointed.
After Chinese officials became aware of plans for an international Falungong meeting in Bangkok in April 2001, they complained to the Thai embassy in Beijing, suggesting the event would disrupt China-Thai relations.249 Simultaneous with the arrival of a new Chinese ambassador in Bangkok, Chinese-language dailies there ran prominent advertisements faulting Falungong, the Chinese Chamber of Commerce spoke out against the proposed gathering, and President Jiang Zemin communicated his concern directly to the new Thailand ambassador to China.250 Although practitioners called the proposed event "non-political," a Thai official made clear that Thailand valued its relations with China, and would not allow anygroup to use Thai territory to disparage another country.251 Chinese authorities supplied Thai police with a list of blacklisted practitioners.252 The Thai business community weighed in, suggesting that if Falungong was accepted in Thailand, groups such as Japan's Aum Shinri Kyo would move in. The press accused Falungong of denigrating Buddhism; Thailand's new government announced that Li Hongzhi would no longer be welcome in Bangkok.253 On February 26, after a meeting with the Deputy Commissioner of Special Branch police, Falungong canceled the meeting.254
Singaporean officials discouraged Falungong practice almost immediately following the Chinese ban. They suspended the group's classes in four government-run community centers; and, according to Falungong practitioners, the government-controlled press refused to sell them advertising space, ignored their press releases and letters to the editor, and published accounts maligning the group.0
Japan also apparently bowed to pressure. On March 8, 2000, the Tokyo metropolitan government refused non-profit status to the 400-member Japan Falun Dafa Society on the grounds that the application forms contained discrepancies. A Tokyo international affairs section chief acknowledged that a Chinese embassy official had called Falungong "a heresy" in urging the rejection, but insisted that the application was denied because Falungong did not meet applicable standards.3 Few such applications had been rejected after the law permitting prefectural governments to grant non-profit status went into effect in December 1998.4 On August 16, 2000, after the society turned to Japan's Economic Planning Agency for help, the Overseas Chinese Council in Tokyo submitted a petition urging rejection. The letter's wording repeated the usual official Chinese accusations: Falungong had a political agenda, caused disturbance of public order, had heretical ideas, poisoned people's minds, and destroyed their health.5 Finally, the petition warned against Japan becoming a "hotbed" for Falungong activities detrimental not only to Japan but to Chinese-Japanese relations. It is worth noting that news of the petition was publicized in an official Chinese source.
Chinese officials were less successful in undermining Falungong in Australia despite the importance of Australia-China trade ties. In early 2001, the South Sydney mayor refused a request from the Chinese consulate in Sydney to prohibit a Falungong event.7 Some six months earlier, the Australian government had refused to intercede after the Chinese consul general in Sydney railed against Falungong's year-long sit-in in front of the consulate.8 Instead, the government responded by raising concerns about the embassy's surveillance and harassment of practitioners in Canberra.9
According to China, Taiwan is a renegade province conspiring with Falungong to "overturn Chinese political power" and Falungong's presence and growth there must be monitored and restricted.10 Taiwan, looking not to exacerbate cross-Straits strains, has been willing to compromise, allowing Falungong practitioners, numbering some 7,000, the freedom to practice without obvious restriction; at the same time, the government has steered clear of seeming to support the movement. Two planned visits by Li Hongzhi, one in July 1999 at the time China banned Falungong, and another in December 2000, were canceled.11 In each case, Falungong spokespersons said Li had changed his schedule, but both sides admitted that political factors played a role. Li's comment before the December trip that, "the timing for visiting Taiwan is not appropriate," most likely reflected a request he stayaway.12 Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council reportedly was against the trip, fearful it would exacerbate already tense mainland-Taiwan relations.13 The December visit was to have been part of a two-day Falungong summit, the Falun Dafa Asia-Pacific Region Cultivation Exchange. The event went ahead as planned, and Taiwan's vice-president did address assembled practitioners but only to read a one-sentence statement and promptly depart.14 Some Taiwan practitioners managed to reach Hong Kong to protest during Jiang's May 2001 visit; others were refused permission to enter.15
Although Western leaders from Europe, the U.S., and Canada spoke out for human rights principles in the face of Chinese insistence that the Falungong "problem" was an internal one brooking no outside interference, there were times they were less than forthcoming in their condemnation of abuses. As the cases below illustrate, Western leaders remained silent or even implied in their remarks that Chinese authorities knew much better than they the intransigence of the Falungong problem and how best to deal with it. At sensitive times, such as when a Chinese dignitary was visiting, some leaders effectively looked the other way when their own authorities compromised Falungong practitioners' rights. But no country has done anything to directly impede Falungong's growth. Only when their own citizens or permanent residents were clearly threatened, or when China's leaders tried to interfere with their right to meet with Falungong followers outside China, did Western governments become actively engaged.
Li Hongzhi's plan to meet with Falungong practitioners in the U.K. on August 22, 1999, one month after the organization was banned in China, sparked a disagreement between the two countries, with Chinese authorities warning a visit would hurt the relationship.17 Claiming Li was a security threat, they urged the U.K. to deny him admittance and urged Interpol to detain him if he tried to cross into Britain. Both requests were refused.18 Li eventually canceled the trip, citing a busy schedule. However, two months later, when President Jiang Zemin visited the U.K. as part of a six-country tour, police refused to allow Falungong practitioners as well as other groups' members to demonstrate on the basis of a little used law banning demonstrations in royal parks.19 On the other hand, a small protest in front of the Chinese embassy in London on Chinese New Year 2001 took place without incident; and the Greater London Assembly refused to rescind its statement censuring China for its treatment of Falungong despite repeated Chinese pressure to do so.20
When Zhang Kunlun, a dual Chinese-Canadian citizen was detained in China for his Falungong-related activities, the Canadian government was forced to defend its policy of trade and private dialogue as a catalyst for changing China's human rights policies.29 By helping secure Zhang's release and assisting in his wife's escape, Prime Minister Jean Chretien was able to keep to his scheduled mid-February 2001 trade mission to China with minimal political fallout. During the visit, Canadian companies signed agreements worth approximately U.S.$3.8 billion.30 To his credit, the prime minister delivered a strong speech denouncing the Chinese government for its human rights abuses including its treatment of Falungong practitioners. A week before the 900-person mission left for China, Canadian Falungong followers charged that Chinese diplomats in Toronto were engaging in a campaign of "direct interference, threat, intimidation, and assault." Foreign Affairs Minister John Manley promised to investigate the complaint, but at the end of November 2001 no further information was available.31 In April, the Chinese consulate in Calgary protested a proclamation by the city of Saskatoon honoring Falungong. The city council refused to withdraw it.32
The Clinton administration went on record immediately after the Chinese government banned Falungong, noting it was "disturbed by reports of the ban, and of some heavy-handed tactics being used to prevent citizens from exercisinginternationally-protected fundamental human rights and freedoms."33 But it was not until the following month, after the U.S. government criticized China for its plan to put Falungong leaders on trial, that Chinese officials went on the offensive against the U.S. position.34 In October, Beijing expressed outrage after a State Department spokesman, in answer to a reporter's question, said that the U.S. had "repeatedly communicated our concern about the crackdown on the Falun Gong at high levels to the Chinese government...We will continue to raise...our concerns..."35 In April 2000, the Clinton administration bluntly told the Chinese government to end its crackdown but did nothing to back up the warning.36 A state department spokesman on October 2, 2000 found China's treatment of demonstrators in Tiananmen Square the day before "very disturbing" and said the U.S. would not stop urging China to respect internationally recognized human rights.37
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson has repeatedly brought to the attention of China's leaders her concern about the treatment of Falungong and the use of arbitrary detention to hold practitioners.53 But other U.N. agencies have sent a different message. In November 2000, theUnited Nations Development Program (UNDP) co-sponsored an "International Symposium on Cults." The opening remarks of Kerstin Leitner, the agency's resident representative in China, gave official media an opportunity to justify China's crackdown and boast of other countries' support for its efforts.54 She suggested, for example, that "Under some circumstances [religious beliefs] can lead to situations where individuals lose their sense of reality and are led to do things which are not in their best interest. It is at this point that religion becomes more than a personal matter." Ms. Leitner went on to say that "tolerance seems to leave us vulnerable to groups which defy mainstream thinking and values in the name of religious mission."55 A year earlier, in October 1999, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan remarked during a visit to China that after Foreign Minister Tang gave him "a full explanation as to how the government sees the group," he had "a better understanding" of what was involved. "In dealing with this issue, the fundamental rights of citizens will be respected and some of the actions they are taking are for the protection of individuals," he said. At the time, Falungong had already been banned and declared an "evil cult," over one hundred practitioners had been formally arrested, others had been administratively sentenced, and police were using violence in their roundups of peacefully demonstrating practitioners in Tiananmen Square.56
205 Mark Landler, "Hong Kong to Monitor Falun Gong More Closely, Official Says," New York Times, February 4, 2001.
206 "Hong Kong: Government reportedly not to follow mainland ban on Falun Gong," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, July 22, 1999, from Kyodo News Service, July 22, 1999.
207 Priscilla Cheung, "China Sect Stages Hong Kong Protest," Associated Press Online, July 23, 1999. Falungong followers mounted a few earlier protests in the period between the April rally in Beijing and the official July ban.
208 "Hong Kong Won't Sell Sect Books," Associated Press Online, July 31, 1999; "Pager Firm Blocks Sect Calls," South China Morning Post, November 6, 1999.
209 Alex Lo, "Falun Gong conference `slap in the face,'" South China Morning Post, December 9, 1999; "Hong Kong chief executive warns Falun Gong to abide by the law," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, December 11, 1999.
210 "Falun Gong members denied entry into Hong Kong for the first time," BBC Monitoring, June 29, 2000; source, Hong Kong iMail (Internet Version-WWW), June 29, 2000.
211 "We must never allow a small number of people in Macao to carry out activities that are against the central government and split the country," quoted in "Jiang Warns Against Dissent at Macao Celebrations," Reuters, December 20, 2000; Loh Hui Yin, "Macau, HK told - Curb anti-China activities," The Straits Times, December 21, 2000.
212 May Sin-mi Hon, "Pro-Beijing media attacks sect meeting," South China Morning Post, January 11, 2001; Martin Wong, Stella Lee and Jimmy Cheung, "Sect claims offensive, says official: Falun Gong members accused of abusing government tolerance in order to challenge Beijing," South China Morning Post, January 16, 2001.
213 Alex Lo, "Banned Sect to Host SAR talks," South China Morning Post, January 4, 2001; "Falungong, Hong Kong Government Compromise on Planned Demonstration," FBIS, January 8, 2001, from Hong Kong iMaiI (Internet Version-WWW), January 5, 2001; "Expose the Heretical Nature of Falungong," Wen Wei Po (Internet Version-WWW), February 9, 2001, in "wwp editorial attacks heretical nature of falungong," FBIS, February 21, 2001.
214 "SAR Falungong Pledges `Low Profile,' Seeks Public Understanding," in FBIS, February 12, 2001, from Hong Kong iMail (Internet Version-WWW), February 8, 2001; "HK NPC Deputy on Hong Kong's Handling of Falungong Issue," FBIS, February 21, 2001, from Hong Kong iMail (Internet Version-WWW), February 20, 2001.
215 Margaret Wong, "Falun Gong Sect Meets in Hong Kong," Associated Press, January 14, 2001.
216 Clay Chandler, "Hong Kong Detains Adherents of Sect Denounced by Beijing; Falun Gong Tests `Two Systems' Policy," Washington Post, January 14, 2001; Agnes Lam, "Sect march on Beijing office," South China Morning Post, January 14, 2001.
217 Lam, "Sect march...," South China Morning Post.
218 Tyler Marshall, "Hong Kong's Political Autonomy Withstands Beijing's Ban on Falun Gong," Los Angeles Times, January 14, 2001.
219 Wong, "Falun Gong Sect Meets...," Associated Press.
220 Chandler, "Hong Kong Detains Adherents...," Washington Post; Manuel and Johnson, "Falun Dafa Says Hong Kong...," Asian Wall Street Journal.
221 Gren Manuel and Ian Johnson, "Falun Dafa Says Hong Kong Is Less Tolerant of Movement --- Government Permits Conference, but Some Followers Are Turned Away ---Chinese Media Outlets in the City Have Openly Criticized Group," Asian Wall Street Journal, January 14, 2001.
222 Hon, "Pro-Beijing media attacks...," South China Morning Post; "People's Daily Commentary: Falungong Leader Backed by Overseas Anti-China Forces," FBIS, January 8, 2001, from Xinhua, January 7, 2001; "There is a Profound International Background to Falungong's Ability to Fight Back Like a Cornered Beast," Zhongguo Xinwen She, February 8, 2001, in "ZXS Commentary Assails Foreign Support for Falungong," FBIS, February 12, 2001.
223 Stella Lee, "Falun Gong conference aims to disrupt social order," South China Morning Post, January 15, 2001.
224 "Tsang Hin-chi To Brief NPC Standing Committee Meeting on Falungong in Hong Kong," FBIS, February 27, 2001, from "NPC Standing Committee Member Tsang Hin-chi Accuses Falungong of Getting More and More Ferocious and Rampant," Wen Wei Po (Internet Version-WWW), February 26, 2001.
225 "Hong Kong authorities to `keep a watch on' Falun Gong - security secretary," BBC Monitoring, February 1, 2001.
226 Stella Lee, "Falun Gong denies being well-funded," South China Morning Post, March 3, 2001.
227 Kong Lai-Fan, "`Devious' Falun Gong needs monitoring says Regina Ip," South China Morning Post, March 2, 2001.
228 Stella Lee, "Sect complains of increased scrutiny by police," South China Morning Post, March 2, 2001.
229 Stella Lee, "Officials admit keeping an eye on sect," South China Morning Post, March 21, 2001.
230 Dirk Beveridge, "Shifting toward Beijing, Hong Kong leader brands Falun Gong a `cult,'" Associated Press Newswires, February 8, 2001.
231 "Travel ban will not affect protest plans: local Falun Gong," South China Morning Post, April 11, 1001.
232 "PRC Security Personnel Arriving in HK To Monitor Falungong Ahead of Jiang Visit," FBIS, April 27, 2001, from Hong Kong Sing Tao Jih Pao, April 25, 2001, p. A13.
233 "Falun Gong Plans Events in Hong Kong During Jiang's Visit," South China Morning Post, April 18, 2001.
234 "Hong Kong Leader Criticizes Sect," Associated Press, April 26, 2001; "Tung steps up attack on sect," South China Morning Post, April 26, 2001; "Hong Kong freedoms to be tested during Jiang visit," South China Morning Post, April 27, 2001.
235 "PRC Official Approves of Tung Chee-hwa's Remarks on Falungong in HK," FBIS, April 30, 2001, from Wen Wei Po, April 28, 2001; "Donald Tsang Vows to Keep Falungong in Check to Protect Citizens," FBIS, May 1, 2001, from Hong Kong iMail (Internet Version-WWW), April 30, 2001.
236 Niki Law, "Police justify protest ban," South China Morning Post, May 4, 2001; Stella Lee, "HK sect protest moved from forum," South China Morning Post, May 4, 2001; "Jiang Almost Meets the Falun Gong," The Economist, May 10, 2001.
237 "Jiang Zemin to Shorten Hong Kong Visit Due to Planned Protests," South China Morning Post, April 18, 2001.
238 "Hong Kong blocks entry of two U.S. Falun Gong members," South China Morning Post, May 6, 2001; "Group: Hong Kong Deports 2 U.S. Falun Gong Members," Reuters, May 6, 2001; Florence Ng, "Hostile reception for sect members," South China Morning Post, May 9, 2000.
239 "Falun Gong Members Demonstrate," Associated Press, May 8, 2001; "Expulsion of Sect Members `Lawful,'" South China Morning Post, May 11, 2001.
240 "Hong Kong says not barring entry due to religion," South China Morning Post, May 16, 2001.
241 "Ip admits to existence of blacklist," South China Morning Post, May 22, 2001.
242 Regina Ip, "`Our force was justified,'" South China Morning Post, May 30, 2001.
243 "HK: Falungong Announces Weekly `Spiritual Exercises' in Kowloon Park," FBIS, May 15, 2001, from Hong Kong iMail (Internet Version-WWW), May 14, 2001.
244 "Hong Kong Considers Legislation Over Cults Such As Falun Gong," Reuters, May 18, 2001.
245 A source close to Hong Kong political leaders confirmed to Human Rights Watch in July 2001 that such discussions were ongoing.
246 Chris Yeung, "Britain welcomes stance on Falun Gong," South China Morning Post, July 20, 2001.
247 Ellen Chan, "Tung: Falun Gong without a doubt an evil cult," South China Morning Post, June 14, 2001.
248 "Say No To Falun Gong, China Urges People in SE Asia," Dow Jones Newswires, March 2, 2001.
249 John Martinkus, "Thailand's quiet crackdown," South China Morning Post, March 7, 2001.
250 "China Thwarts Cult's Thai Plans," Far Eastern Economic Review, March 15, 2001; "A sect under siege," Straits Times, March 11, 2001.
251 "China Warns Thailand to `Be Vigilant' Over Falungong Activities," Agence France-Presse, February 15, 2001; "Thai FM Spokesman Says Falungong Have Not Asked to Hold Meeting," FBIS, February 16, 2001, from Bangkok Matichon, February 15, 2001.
252 "China Gives Thailand Blacklist of Falungong Leaders, Cult Coordinator Comments," FBIS, February 16, 2001, from The Nation (Internet Version-WWW), February 15, 2001.
253 "A sect under siege," Straits Times.
254 "Falun Gong Cancel Meeting in Thailand," Agence France-Presse, February 26, 2001.
255 "Thais to Monitor Falun Gong During Visit by Chinese Premier," Agence France-Presse, May 17, 2001.
0 Barry Porter, "Sect clampdown spills over," South China Morning Post, August 8, 1999; Jake Lloyd Smith, "Sect hits Singapore media over coverage, advertising `ban,'" South China Morning Post, March 3, 2001.
1 "Singapore Ejects Falun Gong Four, But Not to China," Reuters, July 7, 2001.
2 "Singapore Strips Falungong Follower of Permanent Residence," April 27, 2001, World Reporter-TM Asia Intelligence Wire.
3 "China Asks Tokyo To Snub Falungong," Agence France-Presse, March 7, 2000; "Tokyo City Rejects Falungong Application for Non-Profit Status," Agence France-Presse, March 8, 2000.
4 "Xinhua: Falungong Denied Non-Profit Status in Japan," World News Connection, March 8, 2000.
5 "Overseas Chinese urge Japan to deny Falun Gong request for charitable status," BBC Monitoring, September 4, 2000, from Zhongguo Xinwen She, September 1, 2000.
6 Ambrose Leung, "Tokyo acts to clarify anti-cult legislation `mix-up,'" South China Morning Post, July 24, 2001.
7 "A sect under siege...," Straits Times.
8 Wang Yongzhi, "PRC Consul General in Sydney Interviewed on `Struggle' Against Falungong," World News Connection, July 20, 2000.
9 "Australia raises Falun Gong concerns with China," The Age, August 17, 2000, source AAP.
10 "China: Journal says `hostile forces' back Falun Gong to overturn political power," BBC Monitoring, March 19, 2001, from Qiushi, March 1, 2001, pp.40-42.
11 "Sect leader's Taipei visit thrown into doubt ..." South China Morning Post, December 22, 2000; "Li Hongzhi has delayed a planned trip to Taiwan amid heightened...," South China Morning Post, July 23, 1999.
12 "Sect leader's Taipei visit...," South China Morning Post.
13 Jason Blatt, "Annette Lu addresses sect summit," South China Morning Post, December 24, 2000.
14 "Falun Gong members march in support of PRC compatriots," China Post, December 24, 2000; Blatt, "Annette Lu addresses...," South China Morning Post.
15 "Taiwan Falun Gong Followers Detained at HK Airport," Dow Jones Newswires, May 7, 2001.
16 "E.U.: China says human rights meddling may harm E.U. ties," Reuters, March 2, 2001; Fu Jing, "Religious Leaders Refute US Report," China Daily, May 7, 2001; "HK Paper on Beijing Concerns Over CIA's Involvement in Falungong," FBIS, February 18, 2001, from Hong Kong Sing Tao Jih Pao (Internet Version-WWW), February 18, 2001.
17 Simon Macklin, "U.K. warned letting sect leader in would hurt ties," South China Morning Post, August 18, 1999; "Chinese spiritual leader declines invitation to religious meeting," Associated Press Newswires, August 24, 1999.
18 "UK Rejects Plea to Ban Chinese Cult Leader," FBIS, August 19, 1999, from London Press Association, August 17, 1999.
19 Rupert Cornwell and Sara Bonisteel, "So, did that visit leave Britain feeling proud?" The Independent, October 24, 1999; "China's British Friends," The Economist, October 23, 1999; "Pro-democracy protest shown zero tolerance," Times of London, October 20, 1999; "Falungong sect protest banned in France during Jiang visit," Agence France-Presse, October 21, 1999.
20 "Falun Gong Protest in London," Agence France Presse, January 24, 2001; "London assembly in spat with Chinese ambassador over Falun Gong," Agence France-Presse, February 21, 2001.
21 "Falungong sect protest banned in France...," Agence France-Presse, Oct. 21, 1999.
22 Mary Kwang, "Schroeder: Use soft approach with Beijing," Straits Times, November 6, 1999; "Germany's Schroeder, China's Zhu Discuss Human Rights," Dow Jones International News, November 4, 1999.
23 Heike Phillips, "Dutch visit considered `unwise,'" South China Morning Post, February 8, 2001.
24 "Dutch minister cancels China, Hong Kong trip amid sect row," Agence France-Presse, February 7, 2001; Gren Manuel, "Dutch Postpone Visit to China," Wall Street Journal Europe, February 7, 2001.
25 In contrast, Italy's foreign minister Lamberti Dini appears to have acquiesced to Chinese pressure. After talks with his Chinese counterpart, who contended that the West did not understand the Falungong menace, Dini agreed that other countries were in no position to judge the issue. "Chinese, Italian foreign ministers discuss rights, missile shield," BBC Monitoring, March 21, 2001, from ANSA. In 2000, Italy was one of several countries that reportedly blocked moves by the European Union to co-sponsor a U.S. resolution at the U.N. Commission on Human Rights meeting in Geneva condemning China for its human rights abuses. "China Averts U.N. Human Rights Censure; U.S.-Sponsored Resolution Fails on Procedural Vote; Cuba, Yugoslavia Cited," Washington Post, April 19, 2000.
26 "Chinese spokesman criticizes EU's resolution on China's human rights," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, January 26, 2000, from Zhongguo Xinwen She, January 25, 2000.
27 "E.U. Moves to Step up Human Rights Dialogue with China," Agence France-Presse, January 22, 2001; "Chinese spokesman criticizes EU's resolution...," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, Jan. 26, 2000; "E.U. urges China to stop oppression of opponents," Associated Press Newswires, February 23, 2001; "E.U.: China says human rights meddling...," Reuters, March 2, 2001.
28 "China: Anti-cult Association ends week-long visit to France," BBC Monitoring, April 1, 2001, from Xinhua, March 31, 2001; "China: Falun Gong, a cult, should be combated in any country," China Daily, August 18, 1999; "China slams European resolution on rights, Tibet, persecution," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, January 31, 2000, from Xinhua, January 31, 2000.
29 "Chretien turns up the heat on China," Globe and Mail, February 15, 2001; "PM vows to press China on rights," Globe and Mail, March 17, 2001.
30 "Canadian companies sign pacts worth $27b," South China Morning Post, February 14, 2001.
31 "Canada To Investigate Falun Gong Complaints," Central News Agency (Taiwan), February 8, 2001, from World Reporter (TM) - Asia Intelligence Wire.
32 "Chinese consulate criticizes Saskatoon's proclamation honoring Falun Gong," Canadian Press, April 1, 2001.
33 "U.S. disturbed by China's decision to ban sect," Associated Press Newswires, July 22, 1999.
34 "State Department urges China not to prosecute religious group," Associated Press Newswires, August 25, 1999; "Beijing slams U.S. `Meddling over sect,'" South China Morning Post, August 27, 1999; "China Lashes Out at United States for Thwarting the Rectification of Falungong," Ming Pao, August 27, 1999, in "US Accused of Thwarting Anti-Falungong Movement," FBIS, August 30, 1999.
35 US Department of State, Daily Press Briefing, October 27, 1999, Transcript by Federal Document Clearing House; "China resentful over US official Rubin's remarks on Falun Gong sect," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, October 28, 1999, from Xinhua, October 28, 1999.
36 "The Clinton administration has told Beijing to stop its crackdown on...," South China Morning Post, April 27, 2001.
37 "U.S. disturbed by Chinese crackdown on spiritual movement," Associated Press Newswires, October 2, 2000.
38 "China criticizes U.S. comments on Falun Gong crackdown," Associated Press Newswires, January 25, 2001.
39 Jim VandeHei, "Bush Signals Hard Line to China's Vice Premier," Wall Street Journal, March 23, 2001.
40 Scott Lindlaw, "President criticizes Chinese religious restrictions," Associated Press Newswires, May 4, 2001.
41 "Bush quizzes Tung over treatment of Falun Gong," South China Morning Post, July 13, 2001.
42 See for example, "Newspapers Urge U.S. Govt Not to Interfere in China's Internal Affairs," January 28, 2001; Editorial, "Banning Cult According to Law is an Internal Affair Which Brooks No Interference," Ta Kung Pao, January 27, 2001, in "TKP Editorial Blames USA for Interfering in China's Handling of Falungong Sect," FBIS, January 27, 2001; Wen Wei Bao Editorial, "Opposition to the United States' Shielding `Falungong's' Anti-China Activities," Wen Wei Po, January 27, 2001, in "Wen Wei Po Editorial Slams US Support of Falungong," FBIS, January 29, 2001; "China Refutes Alleged `Falun Gong' Crackdown," People's Daily Online, January 26, 2001.
43 Erik Eckholm, "Beijing, Turning Tables, Defends its Repression of Sect," New York Times, February 28, 2001; "China Says West Aiding Falun Gong Revolt Plot," Reuters, September 29, 2000; Joe McDonald, "China detains American, Australians, Swede," Associated Press Newswires, November 25, 1999.
44 "China, US resolution causes strong resentment, opposition," China Daily, November 20, 1999.
45 "China criticizes U.S. comments...," Associated Press Newswires, January 25, 2001.
46 "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: China," Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State; http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/eap/index.cfm?docid=684, February 2001; http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/index.cfm?docid=284, February 2000. U.S. Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 1999, Released by the Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, September 9, 1999, http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/irf/irf_rpt/1999/index.html; for 2000, September 5, 2000, http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/irf/irf_rpt/irf_toc.html. Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, May 1, 2001, http://www.uscirf.gov/reports/01May01Report_Index.php31; May 1, 2000,
47 "Chinese religious leaders protest against US report on religious freedom," BBC Monitoring, May 5, 2001, from Xinhua, May 5, 2001; Eckholm, "Beijing, Turning Tables...," New York Times.
48 "US asylum offer for Falun Gong member infuriates Beijing," South China Morning Post, November 10, 1999.
49 "US Official: Falun Gong Members May Be Granted Asylum," Dow Jones Newswires, February 16, 2000; Amy Westfeldt, "Falun Gong member wins asylum in New Jersey," Associated Press Newswires, April 25, 2000.
50 "Alabama Couple Arrives from China After Detention," Dow Jones International News, October 25, 2000; "Detained Falun Gong Member Released," Associated Press Newswires, February 11, 2000; "Bridgewater woman freed after arrest in China for belonging to Falun Gong," Associated Press Newswires, February 5, 2000; "China To Free Coloradan Highlands Ranch Woman, Was Arrested As Member of Spiritualist Movement Suppressed By Government," Denver Rocky Mountain News, December 15, 1999.
51 Christopher Bodeen, "China sentences U.S. based Falun Gong member for spying," Associated Press Newswires, December 12, 2000; "U.S. Pressures China Over Jailed Falun Gong `Spy,'" Reuters, December 14, 2000.
52 On November 20, thirty-five Falungong practitioners from the U.S., Europe, Australia, and Canada raised a banner in Tiananmen Square to protest China's treatment of Chinese Falungong members. In less than a minute, security officials dragged the demonstrators to waiting vans, apparently roughing up several in the process. Philip P. Pan, "China Arrests Foreigners at Rally; Group Protests Violence Against Falun Gong," Washington Post, November 21, 2001. They were detained for approximately a day before being deported. According to a Chinese spokesperson, from the start of the protest, the protestors were treated in accordance with the law. "Chinese spokeswoman says deported Falun Gong members treated `humanely,'" BBC Monitoring, November 23, 2001, from China National Radio Taiwan, November 22, 2001. According to practitioners, police kicked, punched, and otherwise assaulted at least some of the protestors. S.C. Chang, "CNA: Canadian Falungong Protestors Say PRC Authorities Broke Law," World News Connection, November 30, 2001; Christopher Bodeen, "Sweden protests treatment of Western Falungong demonstrators," Associated Press Newswires, November 22, 2001. Several international journalists were detained and questioned by Chinese authorities for covering the protest. "China: RSF says foreign journalists still persecuted for covering Falun Gong," BBC Monitoring, December 5, 2001, from Reporters Sans Frontieres press release, December 1, 2001.
53 "U.N. chief cites deterioration in China's rights record," Associated Press Newswires, March 3, 2000; "Mary Robinson clashes with China over sect," Irish Times, February 28, 2001.
54 Ian Johnson, "U.N.-Backed Conference in Beijing on Evil Cults,'" Wall Street Journal Europe, November 22, 2000.
55 "Opening Remarks by Kerstin Leitner, UNDP Resident Representative in China International Symposium on Cult Issues," November 9, 2000.
56 Renee Schoof, "20 Falun Dafa members arrested as Annan questions ban," Associated Press, November 17, 1999.