The United States was the first country to call for the eventual elimination of all antipersonnel mines in 1994. On May 16, 1996, President Clinton said that the United States would seek a worldwide agreement as soon as possible to end the use of all antipersonnel mines. At the same time, the Pentagon was directed to begin to undertake a program of research, development and other measures to permit both the United States and our allies to end reliance on [antipersonnel mines] as soon as possible.9
While the Clinton administration did not sign the Mine Ban Treaty in 1997, it established the goal of joining by 2006 if suitable alternatives to antipersonnel mine had been identified and fielded. Additionally, the United States committed to cease using antipersonnel mines, except those contained in mixed systems with antivehicle mines, everywhere in the world except for Korea by 2003 and in Korea by 2006. In practice, this meant 8.4 million artillery-delivered Area Denial Antipersonnel Mines (ADAM) would not be eligible for use.10
The Pentagon spent over $319 million between fiscal years 1999 and 2004 to develop and procure alternatives for antipersonnel mines.11 One program, the Remote Area Denial Artillery Munition (RADAM), which would have combined existing antipersonnel and antivehicle mines into a new mixed system, was cancelled in fiscal year 2002. The RADAM program cost $12.1 million, but no munitions were produced. As detailed below, some of the other alternative programs are now aimed at producing weapons that meet the definition of an antipersonnel mine under the Mine Ban Treaty.
 The White House, Fact Sheet: U.S. Announces Antipersonnel Landmine Policy, May 16, 1996.
 For more details on the development of U.S. policy, see International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Landmine Monitor Report 2004: Toward a Mine-Free World (New York: Human Rights Watch, November 2004), pp. 1,138-1,140.
 The $319 million figure is compiled from: Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army, February 2004, pp. 406-411; Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5, February 2004, pp. 74-79, 1,079-1,087, 1,096-1,101; Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 1,2, and 3, February 2004, p. 463.