Background Briefing

Violence in Nigeria’s Oil Rich Rivers State in 2004

Rivers and Blood: Guns, Oil and Power in Nigeria’s Rivers State

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A Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper

February 2005


II. The Emergence of Armed Groups in Rivers State

  1. Themanipulation of youth groups by local politicians

  2. Payments made to communities by multinational oil companies and their impact
    On fomenting conflict over traditional leadership positions

  3. Poverty, underdevelopment and widespread youth unemployment

  4. The use of youth groups by conglomerates involved in the illegal theft and sale
    Of crude oil, or illegal oil bunkering 

  5. Widespread availability of small arms and other weapons

  6. The prevailing culture of impunity in Nigeria

III. Criminal Violence and Human Rights Abuses Against the Local Population in 2004

  1. Tombia, Buguma and Bukuma

  2. Amadi Ama and Okrika

  3. Port Harcourt

  4. Njemanze waterfront

  5. Marine base waterfront

  6. Sangana Street and Warri Street

  7. Response of the Nigerian Security Forces

IV. The Agreement to End the Violence in Rivers State