19 décembre 2010

IX. Jahalin Bedouin and Ma’ale Adumim

The Jahalin Bedouin are originally from Beer Sheva in the Negev Desert, deriving their name from their tribal or extended family affiliation. They left or were forcibly displaced from the area in the early 1950s, following Israel’s declaration of independence in 1948. During the 1950s, the Jahalin Bedouin found shelter in the Hebron Governorate of the West Bank, then under Jordanian occupation; some years later they moved to the hilly Judean desert between Jerusalem and Jericho, to the east, in areas near Road No. 1, the Jerusalem-Jericho road.[405]

Large amounts of land in the area belonged to Palestinian owners, including farmland belonging to residents of the villages of Abu Dis, 'Anata, al-'Izariyyeh, a-Tur, and al-'Issawiyyeh; the Jordanian government had previously recognized their ownership claims during its occupation of the area, including, for example, in a case where Palestinians successfully sued the Jordanian government to recognize their ownership rights when Jordan built a firing range on 145 hectares in the area.[406] Bedouin residents rented property from Palestinian property owners in the area.[407]

The Israeli settlement of Ma’ale Adumim was later established in the same area to the northeast of Jerusalem. Israel approved its establishment in 1976, and construction began in 1982. By the early 1990s, the settlement’s growth began to threaten the Jahalin communities in the area, beginning with those closest to the settlement or in areas designated for its expansion. (Currently, Ma’ale Adumim is one of the largest Israeli settlements, with 34,100 residents as of 2009).[408] In 1993 the Israeli government began issuing eviction orders against some of the Bedouin communities established in the area, but the High Court temporarily suspended their eviction until the end of court proceedings. On May 28, 1996 the Supreme Court denied the Bedouins’ final appeal on the basis that they lacked property rights in the area and gave them three months to evacuate voluntarily.

The affected families refused, negotiations between them and the Israeli Civil Administration failed, and according to one local resident, Abu Yusef, the IDF and Civil Administration forcibly expelled some Bedouin living near Ma’ale Adumim in 1996: “they forced them onto buses and destroyed their homes,” Abu Yusef said.[409] On February 19, 1997 members of the Jahalin Bedouin were forcefully evicted—including members of the community who had been evicted from Beer Sheva in 1948.[410]

Several more expulsions followed. Members of several communities told Human Rights Watch that the IDF repeatedly bulldozed their villages—comprised of homes and animal pens constructed of wood, cloth and corrugated metal that they rebuilt. Throughout 1997 (in January, February, and August) about one hundred Jahalin families were evicted, and in February 1998 thirty-five other families were forcibly evicted and were not provided any place to go.[411]

In 1998 several Jahalin families (around 35 families comprising 200 individuals) struck a deal with the Israeli Civil Administration. Israeli authorities claimed the area from which the Bedouin had been evicted for the creation of a new Ma’ale Adumim neighborhood, known as “06,” but permitted the Bedouins to lease “state lands” approximately one kilometer to the south. This was the only time since the occupation of the West Bankin 1967 that Israeli authorities granted rights over “state lands” to non-Jews.[412] Other Palestinians in the area claimed Israel had confiscated these lands from them.[413] The site was located less than 500 meters from the Jerusalem municipal dump.[414]

In July 1999, Israeli authorities positioned metal containers as living quarters for Jahalin Bedouin on the new site. The new village contained 120 plots for 120 families of 2-dunam (half-acre), one-dunam and half-dunam sizes with 49-year leases and an additional 49-year rental-extension option, signed by the Israel Lands Administration.[415] The families received monetary compensation, and several years later began building houses on the site.[416] Since the land was in Area C, any public building required permits from the Civil Administration. Today the village includes a mosque, a seven-class school, and a 12-class school. The site is linked to the East Jerusalem electricity system and has running water.

In informal conversations with Human Rights Watch, several residents of the village said that they had found it impossible to maintain their traditional way of life, and had given up herding sheep due to lack of grazing ground and difficulty in accessing it. Some men in Arab al-Jahalin now work in construction in Ma’ale Adumim.[417]

The Arab al-Jahalin village is adjacent to the Abu Dis waste disposal facility, which began operating in the early 1980s. According to a 2001 Israeli State Comptroller’s report, all of Jerusalem’s household refuse, including the garbage of Ma’ale Adumim, is taken to the Abu Dis waste disposal site. Four million tons of garbage had been buried in the site by 2001, and the Comptroller identified serious defects in operation of the site that had produced environmental hazards.[418] In 2009 the state, in its response to a Hight Court of Justice petition, said that 90 percent of all the waste buried in the waste disposal site was from Jerusalem, four percent from settlements, and the remainder from Palestinian communities.[419]

The Bedouin families who were not part of the deal – roughly 1,000 to 1,500 people – stayed in the area around Ma’ale Adumim.[420] They continue to face the threat of forcible displacement because of continuing settlement expansion and the planned construction of the Israeli separation barrier in the area; in one recent case, six Bedouin families were reportedly evicted when the Israeli Civil Administration bulldozed their homes in late October.[421] Other than the 35 families who now comprise the Arab al-Jahalin village, as agreed with the Civil Administration in 1999, the rest of the Jahalin families live in unrecognized communities.

Living conditions for the remaining Jahalin Bedouin in areas around Ma’ale Adumim are harsh: they lack electricity and, in most cases, running water, and have limited access to essential services. The closest hospitals are located on the other side of the separation barrier, inside East Jerusalem, which the Bedouin, like other Palestinian residents of the West Bank, may not access without special permits. A recent survey by UN agencies of living conditions for herder communities in Area C of the West Bank, like the Jahalin Bedouin, found that many people lack essential food and potable water, basic shelter and housing, appropriate clothing, and essential medical services and sanitation. Rates of stunting among these communities was an astonishing 28.5 percent; 15.3 percent were under weight; and 79 percent of those surveyed were food insecure, with 77 percent reduced to buying food on credit.[422]

A member of one of the Bedouin communities that has not been recognized told Human Rights Watch that Israeli civil authorities prohibited virtually any attempt to improve their situation, by restricting their ability to build public buildings or infrastructure or connect to road, electricity or water networks:

The situation here is bitter. We just want to get medical centers, schools, electricity and water. Allow us to be humans. What’s painful is not that we are living in poverty, but that the Israelis are building new houses and schools for their children and they’re doing it all right here, on our land. But when we ask to be allowed to do this, we’re told no.

Human Rights Watch researchers visited several different Jahalin communities around Ma’ale Adumim. The Jahalin community in the valley known as Wadi Abu Hindi is not accessible from the main road, but only via a very rough dirt road that is often not passable except via a 4x4 vehicle. The community’s only vehicle is a van, which it uses to bring teachers from the main road to the small local school.

The elementary school, which teaches children in grades one through nine, serves families from the communities of Wadi Abu Hindi, Muntar, and Abu Nuwwar. Daoud al-Asmar, the school headmaster, told Human Rights Watch 71 boys and 60 girls attend the school.[423] The school has around fifteen teachers, who come mainly from the villages of Zaharya or Sawahri, about an hour away. Al-Masri said that the Israeli military demolished the school, built in 1997, on September 28 of that year because it lacked proper permits, but that villagers rebuilt it and had reached an agreement with the Civil Administration that it would not be demolished again if no further permanent structures were erected; he said that the corrugated-metal roofing was leaky during winter, and that the classrooms were extraordinarily hot in the summer.[424] The school at Abu Hindi is one of two PA schools serving the Jahalin Bedouins. It has no computers, lab, or library. There is no heating or insulation; electricity is provided by generators. There is no running water; the school administration brings in water tankers for the children.

Since there are no paved roads, students from nearby communities have to walk or take donkeys to get to school. Lhloud, a nine-year-old student in the third grade, described her daily walk from the Bedouin community of Muntar to attend classes at the Abu Hindi school:

I get up at 6 and get to school at 7:30. I finish school at 1 p.m. and then go home. My older brother and two sisters come to school with me. There are two girls, Anoud and Nada, who come from farther away than I do. I walk to school and carry my books. It’s harder in the summer because it’s hot, and there are snakes on the way. I get tired and slip on the road sometimes. I come here to learn; I want to be a doctor and study medicine.[425]

The teachers share two cars that the village rents especially for them, but they cannot pay licensing fees so the cars cannot go on the roads.

In contrast, the settlement of Ma’ale Adumim has fourteen schools licensed and funded by the Israeli Ministry of Education, which offer laboratories for science classes, libraries, after-school activities, and other modern services. The Ministry of Education awarded Ma’ale Adumim a prize for quality of educational services. According to the municipal budget of Ma’ale Adumim, the proposed education budget for 2010 is NIS 40,694,000 (US$10,708,000).[426]

A retired teacher told Human Rights Watch that she moved to Ma’ale Adumim in 1984, four years after moving to Israel from the United Kingdom, because it was economically attractive. At the time, she said, “the Labor party wanted to fill it up. It had some of the best deals on mortgages.”[427] The settlement has expanded rapidly since she first arrived, she said; new neighborhoods were constructed in 2003, 2006 and 2007. Today Ma’ale Adumim features a shopping mall and excellent health services; in case of emergency, she said, residents need only a five-minute ambulance ride to reach Hadassah hospital in Jerusalem.

The resident denied that the settlement had displaced any Palestinian residents. “We didn’t turn anybody out when we arrived. We were living in the edge of what was then the only neighborhood, and underneath us there was a valley. Sometimes goats or sheep would come close by, sometimes with a shepherd, but it was not the same shepherd, and it only happened occasionally.” She was not aware of any security threats from Palestinians, but felt that “Ma’ale Adumim is safer than some parts of Jerusalem.”

The Bedouin communities are far from healthcare facilities that Palestinians are allowed to access. As noted, the communities fall within the administrative area of “Area C,” over which Israel exerts full military and civil control, and Israeli civil and military authorities restrict all non-settlement building permits with very limited exceptions. As a result, the Jahalin Bedouin cannot build health clinics in their communities, and must go to clinics elsewhere.Settlement clinics are also off-limits to them; Palestinian clinics are available in the towns of Abu Dis and Azariya a few kilometers away, but can be difficult for villagers to access.

Abu Yousef, a member of the Abu Hindi community, told Human Rights Watch that in 2005, a two year-old boy suffering from cancer needed to go to Jordan for medical care. “We rented a van to drive to the border, but it was raining, and on these unpaved roads it floods quickly. At the end, we had to stop and take a donkey in the rain until we got to the main road, seven kilometers away.” Abu Yusef recounted another case, also in 2005, when a woman had to give birth in the middle of the road on her way to a hospital. “It was winter and snowing, and I took the woman on a donkey. But it took too long, and in the middle of the way we stopped and I made a shelter, and she delivered the baby.”[428] Abu Yusef said that in some cases “the Israelis do send ambulances,” which wait for patients at the main road, although Bedouins, like all Palestinian residents of the West Bank, had to obtain permits first in order to be able to enter Jerusalem to access hospitals there – Israel has constructed a concrete wall separating much of East Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank– and that it was difficult to depend on settlers’ assistance, which was only available informally.

According to the Israeli military Civil Administration, the PA is responsible under the 1995 Interim Agreement (the Oslo accords) for providing water and other services to Palestinian villages in the West Bank. Israel, however, never transferred the authority to the PA to provide these services in Area C, which continues to fall under absolute Israeli military and civil control; the PA can provide no services without the approval of the Civil Administration and the IDF, with the exception of teachers and doctors or other educational and health personnel. Israel retains full security and administrative control over planning and construction in Area C, while the Palestinian Authority is responsible for the provision of education and health services. As a joint survey by UNRWA, UNICEF and WFP found, “This division has created problems in ensuring that basic services are provided to the most vulnerable communities in Area C.” The PA, for example, faced “difficulties in obtaining building permits from the Israeli Civil Administration (ICA) for the construction or expansion of schools and health clinics,” which “significantly impedes the fulfillment of this responsibility.”[429] In one recent case,Civil Administration in Judea and Samaria Director Brig.-Gen. Yoav Mordechai, “decided to link” the village of al-Tawani, in the South Hebron Hills area of the West Bank to the Israeli water network, “in light of the villagers' plight.”[430]

In general, in other Area C villages, cases where Israeli authorities have granted PA requests to provide access to services that require any construction, including water, electricity, schools and clinics, are the exception, although the PA provides employees such as teachers and medical personnel who staff schools and conduct weekly visits to provide basic medical care to various communities.[431] The Civil Administration stated that in the case of al-Tawani, it would offer a tender for the construction of the necessary water infrastructure “at its own expense” and “will continue to work to improve the fabric of life for all residents of Judea and Samaria.”[432] Such examples of the Civil Administration taking responsibility for the welfare of Palestinian residents under its control are partial and infrequent.[433] As a result, with Israel refusing to grant access to services, and the PA and international humanitarian agencies and NGOs unable to do so because of the threat that Israel will demolish un-permitted construction, Palestinian villagers in Area C largely have to fend for themselves in figuring out how to access these services.

In contrast, the Israeli government provides medical clinics in the Ma’ale Adumim settlement and has invested in roads to facilitate the access of settlers to hospitals in Jerusalem. Ma’ale Adumim has several health clinics but no hospital. A website intended to attract English-speaking Jews to immigrate to Ma’ale Adumim from abroad states that the settlement has buses to Jerusalem every five minutes, quality schools, as well as medical clinics, an emergency medical care facility, “dentist clinics, and alternative medicine practitioners.”[434] In case of emergency, residents can use the newly paved road, opened in 2003, connecting Ma’ale Adumim with Jerusalem. According to Ma’ale Adumim’s website, “the new highway will permit residents of Ma’ale Adumim, and other Jewish towns located on the Jerusalem-Jericho highway, to reach Ramat Eshkol in the capital in about seven minutes, instead of the present 15-20 minutes. The NIS 320 million (US $84 million) project is one of Israel's largest public works projects.”[435]

The expansion of the settlements and related restrictions on Palestinian movement and access to land in the area has harmed the Jahalin Bedouin’s traditional source of income: raising cattle and sheep. According to residents, restrictions on access to grazing lands have forced them to buy fodder and tankers of water for their sheep, significantly increasing costs and reducing the number of livestock they can afford to own. According to Ra’id Sourakhi, the fodder costs between NIS 1,000 and 2,000 (US$260-$520) per ton, and each sheep eats around two kilograms a day.[436]

Abu Yusef told Human Rights Watch:

In the 1950s and 60s we were already living in the area around here, but we moved around a lot. We were here in this village since the 1970s. On average, each [family] had 200 sheep. You used to be able to roam around a lot. Now we have around 50 or 60 sheep per family. There’s no land left. In the 1980s, the growth of the settlements here pressured people to cluster together.

Abu Yusef added that movement restrictions also affected his ability to sell milk and meat products obtained from the sheep. “We used to sell it in Jerusalem, but now we can’t get there so we sell it to nearby villages.” An additional problem is that the community of Wadi Abu Hindi is located at the base of a valley; a garbage dump is located halfway down the valley. “Sometimes the sheep and cows eat nylon bags from the dump, and then they die,” said Abu Yousef.

Problems are not very different in the other Jahalin communities nearby. In Muntar, adjacent to the Qedar B settlement, two kilometers south of Ma’ale Adumim, there is no electricity, water, or roads.[437] When there is a medical emergency, locals walk to Azariya (a four-kilometer distance) to get a vehicle. But a resident explained that the direct road goes through the settlement of Qedar. According to Israeli military orders, settlements are “closed military zones” to Palestinians, who require special permits to enter them, including in cases where roads pass through settlements. The Bedouin have to go around the settlement, he said, which takes longer.[438]

The Bedouins of Muntar are shepherds and make an income selling cheese. The lack of electricity makes it difficult to keep the milk fresh, and residents said they have to salt the meat to keep it from going bad. “We use to be able to go to the sheep market in Jerusalem near Anata. Now we can’t,” Abu Na’im, resident of Muntar, told Human Rights Watch. Because of lack of space to graze, here too shepherds must buy food, and “many of us had to sell our sheep because it was unaffordable.” Often, men will take their sheep away to graze. Abu Na’im took the sheep to Nablus “last year in April, and came back in August. The rest of the year we had to buy the sheep’s food.”[439]

In Murassas, another Jahalin community near Ma’ale Adumim, residents told Human Rights Watch that before Ma’ale Adumim was constructed, there were 14 water wells in the area. Although the wells now are gone, the community receives water and electricity from the Palestinian town of Azariye. Human Rights Watch observed the community’s water pipe, a small black tube around six centimeters in diameter running along the hillside. Residents said that they cannot build new homes. Mhammad Khamis Jahalin told Human Rights Watch,

Fear of displacement is our biggest problem. Everything is temporary. We could be gone tomorrow. All our houses have stop-work orders [from the Israeli Civil Administration]. When our children get married, we cannot add a new home for them, or they’ll be demolished.[440]

He added that grazing had become very difficult and that a combination of restrictions on building and movement was forcing Bedouin to leave the area. “The land we used to graze is now too close to the settlement, so they tell us that for security reasons we can’t go there. Many people had to sell their sheep, and some moved out, to Nablus or Jenin.”

Plans for further settlement construction in the area would significantly harm the Jahalin Bedouin. The planned route of the separation barrier in the Ma’ale Adumim area would leave the city and the smaller adjacent settlements (Kfar Adumin, Almon, Qedar, Nofey Prat, and Alon) on the “Israeli side of the barrier. As well, Israel has planned settlement construction on a large area adjacent to Al’ale Adumim and contiguous with the greater Jerusalem municipality known as “E1.” Despite US opposition, Israel began to implement parts of the E1 outline plan, building the new “Samaria and Judaea Police District Headquarters” there and paving an extensive system of roads to serve hundreds of housing units.[441] The E1 plan and the route of the separation barrier around the E1 - Ma’ale Adumim settlement block, if implemented, would encompass 52 square kilometers and over 50,000 Jewish settlers.[442] Enacting these plans would entail the eviction of all Jahalin Bedouin from the area.

[405]This is according to the claims of the Jahalin tribe. The State of Israeli claims that tribe members did not settle in the area before 1988 (see HCJ 2966/95, Muhammad Ahmad Sallem Haresh and 19 others v. Minister of Defense et al., ruling from May 28, 1996).

[406]In this case, which covers only a fraction of the area on which an industrial zone near Ma’ale Adumim would later be built, Jordan recognized that 78 percent of the land was privately-owned by Palestinians. B’Tselem, The establishment and expansion plans of the Maʹale Adumim settlement: Spatial and human rights implications, December 2009, p. 19, citing Meir Shamgar, “Industrial Zone in Jerusalem,” September 12, 1974, ‘AnatotMa’ale Adumim File, vol. 3,ISA/77/A/7341/10.

[407]B’Tselem, On the Way to Annexation: Human Rights Violations Resulting from the Establishment and Expansion of the Ma’ale Adumim Settlement, 1999, Chapter 4,http://www.btselem.org/Download/199907_On_The_Way_To_Annexation_Eng.doc (accessed October 20, 2010).

[408]Ma’ale Adumim was granted the municipal status of a city in 1991; it was the first settlement to attain this status. All demographic data on Israeli settlement population derives from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, http://cbs.gov.il (accessed April 12, 2010).

[409]Human Rights Watch interview with Abu Yusef, Wadi Abu Hindi, December 21, 2009.

[410]Sasi Contractors v. the State of Israel, Jerusalem District Court 1260/99.

[411] Badil: http://www.badil.org/en/al-majdal/item/1219-israel-continues-to-evict-jahalin-bedouin-from-west-bank-%5C (accessed September 12, 2010); Passia: http://www.passia.org/jerusalem/chronology/chron12.htm (accessed September 12, 2010).

[412] “State lands” are areas of the West Bank over which Israel claimed custody on the basis that they are not owned or cultivated by Palestinians. According to Israel's Basic Law, state lands may not be sold, and are often leased for periods of 49 or 99 years, including to Jewish settlers.

[413] Palestinian residents of Abu Dis claim that the state lands the Jahalin were offered to lease originally belonged to them before Israel confiscated them.

[414]Arnon Regular, “Bedouin Expelled by Ma’ale Adumim wall,” Haaretz, September 23, 2005.

[415]As discussed above, state lands cannot be sold.

[416]Families with more than four children received 38,000 shekels (US$10,000), smaller families received 28,000 shekels (US$7370). A total of 4 million shekels (around US$1,050,000) was allocated to the families, in addition to about 3,000 dunams (750 acres) of pasture land.

[417] Human Rights Watch conversations with residents, Arab al-Jahalin, December 21, 2009.

[418] State Comptroller, Reports on Auditing of Local Government, Associations, and Institutions of Higher Education 


[419]HCJ 10611/08, Ma’ale Adumim Municipality v. Commander of IDF Forces in Judea and Samaria et al., Response of the State, February 22, 2009, section 32. 

[420]These rough estimates are based on Israeli Civil Administration calculations. These include the Salamat clan (about 60 families); the Hamadin (about 25 families), who to the south and southwest of Ma’ale Adumim; the Abu Dahuk and ‘Arara clans (about 50 families), who live along the Ma’ale Adumim-Jericho road and near the Mishor Adumim industrial area; and the Sayara clan, about 60 families that live in Wadi Al-Hindi, near the Kedar settlement on the south side of the fenced-in enclave of Ma’ale Adumim. (Arnon Regular, “Bedouin Expelled by Ma’ale Adumim wall,” Haaretz, September 23, 2005.) Studies prepared by Badil and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC) puts the total number of Jahalin spread around Ma’ale Adumim at around 30,000. A report prepared by LAW - The Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment estimates the population of one area, called ‘Arab Jahalin, at 7,500.

[421]Maan News, “Israel razes Bedouin camp,” October 27, 2010, http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=328051 (accessed November 1, 2010).

[422]UNRWA, UNICEF and WHO, Food Security and Nutrition Survey For Herding Communities In Area C, February 2010.

[423]Human Rights Watch interview with Daoud al-Masri, Wadi Abu Hindi, December 21, 2009.

[424]Id. See also Badil, http://www.badil.org/en/article74/item/572-eviction-of-jahalin-bedouin-continues (accessed September 15, 2010).

[425] Human Rights Watch interview with Lhloud, Wadi Abu Hindi, December 21, 2009.

[426]The budget includes NIS 5,782,000 (US $1,521,600) for security, NIS 648,000 (US$170,500 ) for construction permits / city planning, NIS 2,346,000 (US $617,400) for sidewalks and roads, NIS 2,360,000 (US$621,000) for street lights, a total of NIS 940,000 (US$247,400) for services for new immigrants, and NIS 18,055,000 (US$4,751,300) for water.

[427]Human Rights Watch interview with R., Ma’ale Adumim, June 27, 2010.

[428]Human Rights Watch interview with Abu Yousef, Wadi Abu Hindi, December 21, 2009.

[429]UNRWA, UNICEF and WFP, Food Security and Nutrition Survey for Herding Communities in Area C, February 2010, p. 9.

[430]The statement did not note that village residents had been requesting water connectivity for years, or that it had recently become the subject of a popular campaign (“An Action A Day”) by Israeli rights activists.

[431]Human Rights Watch interviews in Umm al Kheir (a Bedouin community near the settlement of Carmel) and Wadi Abu Hindi, February 20, 2010, and December 21, 2009.

[432] Civil Administration Spokesman, “Civil Administration to Link A’Tuwani Village to Mekorot Water Infrastructure,” July 25, 2010.

[433] Al-Tawani, for example, continues to lack any connection to the electricity network, after Israeli authorities prevented it from connecting to the network in 2009. The Civil Administration has issued a demolition order against a paved road that runs inside the village on the grounds that villagers did not obtain permits to pave it. Human Rights Watch interviews with al-Tawani residents, April 24, 2010.

[434]Tehilla, “Communities – Ma’ale Adumim,” http://www.tehilla.com/pilottrips/communities.asp?id=341 (accessed July 23, 2010). Information about the emergency medical clinic is available at http://www.terem.com/eng/aboutE.php?id=Ma’aleadumim (accessed July 23, 2010).

[435]Ma’ale Adumim, http://www.jr.co.il/ma/history.htm (accessed August 20, 2010).

[436]Human Rights Watch interview with Ra’id Sourakhi, Wadi Abu Hindi, December 21, 2009.

[437] Qedar was founded in 1985, 852 residents as of 2008. Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, http://cbs.gov.il (accessed April 12, 2010).

[438]Human Rights Watch interview with Abu Na’im, Muntar, December 21, 2009.

[439]Human Rights Watch interview with Abu Na’im, Muntar, December 21, 2009.

[440] Human Rights Watch interview with Mhammad Khamis Jahalin, Marassas, December 21, 2009.

[441]E1 is the name used for the area adjacent to Jerusalem’s municipal borders, as defined after 1967, encompassing some 1,200 hectares, mostly land declared by Israel as government property, some expropriated land, and a small area of state land registered in the Land Registry as government property during the period of Jordanian rule. See Bimkom and Btselem, The Hidden Agenda, 2009, p. 25-30.

[442]Group of NGOs including Badil, al-Haq, ARIJ, ICAHD, DCI, JLAC, and others, “Urgent appeal on the situation of the Jahalin Bedouin living in the occupied Palestinian territory and threatened by forced displacement,” http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2007.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/TBRL-74XR7B-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf (accessed May 5, 2010).