April 19, 2010

Harsh War, Harsh Peace

Abuses by al-Shabaab, the Transitional Federal Government, and AMISOM in Somalia

Map of Somalia
Summary
Methodology
Recommendations
To the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia (TFG)
To the African Union and the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
To al-Shabaab and other Opposition Groups Fighting in Mogadishu
To al-Shabaab and Local Authorities in al-Shabaab-Controlled Communities
To the UN Security Council
To the UN Secretary-General
To the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
To the UN High Commissioner for Refugees
To the UN Human Rights Council
To the Government of Kenya
To the Governments of Uganda and Burundi
To the United States, the European Union and its Member States, and the African Union
Background
Major Domestic Parties to the Conflict
Transitional Federal Government
Al-Shabaab
Hizbul Islam..
Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca
The African Union Mission in Somalia
Al-Shabaab and International Terrorism..
Daily Life under al-Shabaab
International Legal Standards
Peace and Security—For a Price
Climate of Fear
Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, and Expression
Freedom of Conscience, Religion, and Education
Discrimination and Abuse against Women
Restrictions on Women’s Dress
Ban on Commercial Activity
Segregation from Men
Amputations and Executions
Civilians Trapped in the Middle: Violations of International Humanitarian Law..
Indiscriminate and Other Unlawful Attacks
Indiscriminate Attacks
Deploying in Densely Populated Areas and “Human Shielding”
Indiscriminate Attacks by TFG and AMISOM Forces
Al-Shabaab Suicide Bombings
Other Unlawful Uses of Force
Death Threats and Targeted Killings of Civilians
Threats and Attacks on Journalists and Humanitarian Workers
Forced and Unlawful Recruitment
Coercion, Threats, and Murder
Recruitment of Children
Recruitment from Refugee Camps
The Role of Key International Actors
United Nations Institutions
The African Union
The United States
The European Union
Ethiopia and Eritrea
Acknowledgments